What were the major contributions made by early India (before 800 C.E.) to the world’s
civilization (e.g., science, technology, philosophy, trade, etc.)? 2) What were the major
achievements in the early stage of Chinese civilization (before 300 C.E.), especially
dur ing the Han dynasty?
Some of the early contributions made by both china and India can be listed below, I’ve
taken the liberty of outlining which dynasty they were brought forward on.
-Vedic Culture - introduced the
scientific achievements: philosophy,
medicine, steel and iron
metalworking, and mathematics,
e.g., numbering system (“Arabic”)
-The Mauryan dynasty provided the
Maritime trade to S outheast Asia,
br ing forward extensive transpor t
-Shang Dynasty – Introduced t he use
of bronze to create vessels which,
could store water and other products
-Zhou Dynasty Technological and
artistic development in urban areas;
inscriptions and writing. They also
introduced iron tools and
urbanization and specialized
occupations; increasing trade and
-Han China’ introduced the civil
In the end, India contributed scientific and medical contributions to Europe and
elsewhere, mathematics: algebra, numeration (0-9), negative/positive, square/cube roots,
zero/infinity, pi - Astronomy: solar-centered planetary system, rot ating earth in orbit
around the sun and surgery (cesarean section, plastic surgery) procedures to the world.
China introduced paper-making, gunpowder, compass, water-powered mills, water-tight
compartments and mul tiple masts, blood circulation, disti llation techniques, porcelain,
The Mauryan Empire – An empire that arose in the 322BCE, it included the whole of
Hindustan, and the most of the northwest, with its Capital on the Ganges at Pataliputra.
The Maurya Dynasty took place c.324- c.185 B.C.E. Chandragupta the founder of the M.
Empire died. About 297 B.C.E. It was t he beginning of state enterpr ises and institutions;
prosperity and wealth • it introduced maritime trade to Souastheast Asia; with extensive
transpor t networks and had a large impact on Greek philosophy and science.
Emperor Ashoka - known as the greatest kings of world histor y, was a converted
Buddhist. He started a r ighteous Rule, where all people were Ashoka’s “children” and he
softened the use of harsh punishment. Ashoka advocated nonviolence, urged pilgrimages,
and encouraged the spread of vegetarianism. Regardless of his changed way of life, the
empire kept his army, his laws, and his cour ts. As he progressed in his spiritual practices,
he stayed grounded on his r ules. In conclusion, Ashoka was t he unlimited ruler, one who
had heart and soul. Ashoka’s pillar still remain as modern India’s national emblem