GASB58- Class 2.docx

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22 Apr 2012
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GASB58 WEEK 2 January 19, 2012
RISE AND CONSOLIDATION OF THE QING DYNASTY
REVIEW
COLLAPSE OF THE MING DYNASTY IN 1643
- Chongzhen 崇祯[1628-1644] (last emperor of the Ming) [hanged himself 1644]
- The Coal Hill (Meishan)where Chongzhen hung himself
- Li Zicheng 李自成 (late-Ming leader rebel) [1605-1645]
- Misgovernment and infighting
- Fiscal problems (Declining Revenue and Silver shortage)
- Military problem
- Natural disasters and epidemics
- Popular uprisings
- Invasion by the Manchus from the Northeast
THE MANCHUS
- Manchus were really good at hunting, archery, and could be very violent.
- Manchus had different traditions and hierarchy than people in the Ming dynasty
- Manchuria was pretty big.
QING
- Wanted the Chinese to shave half of their head and grow a ponytail and wrap the tail around their head (this
was Manchu hairstyle)
- public way to show the Chinese who was the ruler. And showed that the Chinese were now the
- Made it an offense to not follow the dress and hairstyle of the Manchus [capital punishment: execution]
- Forced consent, in a sense
- For the first couple years, the banners were happy because the royal family didn’t want people to rebel.
- Manchus Adopted Confucianismeffective ideology to instill loyalty
- Examination system adopted by the Manchus.
NURHACI 努爾哈赤 [1559-1626]
- Established the later/Second Jin in 1616
- Unified the Jurchen (later known as Manchu) tribes in 1600s-1610s
- Declared war on the Ming 1616
- Took over Mukden [Shenyang] in 1625
- Died 1626
- was unable to see his dream come true
- He created a new kind of social, military, and political units or structure called banners
- used banners to collect taxes
- used banners used as administrative
- different colours (hierarchy)
- 8 banners for Chinese, 8 for Manchus, and 8 for Mongols
HONG TAIJI 洪太極 (ABAHAI) [1592-1643]
- Son of Nurhaci
- Died 1643 and further laid down the foundation of the Qing empire
- Appointed many Han-Chinese scholars (former Ming officials) and generals to reform Qing military and
administration
- Reformed Manchu written language
- Refined and extended the 8 banner system
- Allied with the Mongol Tribes in 1632
- Subdued Korea in 1638
- Renamed the dynasty to Qing Dynasty in 1636
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