GASB58- Class 11.docx

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23 Apr 2012
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GASB58 Class 11 March 29, 2012
WEEK 11: REFORM AND OPENING ERA (1978-2000)
REFORM AND OPENING ERA
- Reform and Opening Policy since 1978
- Economic Development as Top Priority
- Restore Order and the Rule of Law
- Population Growth and Birth Control
- Social Consequences of Capitalism
- The 1989 Student Movement
- The Return of Hong Kong and Macao
- China’s Rise as a World Economic/Political Power and Continued Challenges
CHALLENGES OF THE REFORM ERA
- Restore Order and Rule of Law
- In the 1950s-1970s: Law schools closed; Ministry of Justice abolished; lawyers and law professors sent to
labor camps
- Early state of Reestablishment:
- 1979: Resumed
- 1982: 5500 lawyers, 500 000
- Army officers appointed to judicial positions
- New laws
- Criminal law 1979, Income Tax Law 1980, Economic Contract Law 1981, Trademark Law 1982, Patent
Law 1984, Inheritance Law 1985, Code of Civil Procedure 1986, Laws on Securities, Insurance and
Copyrights in 1990s
- Population Pressure
- Rapid development: 1953: 582 million; 1964: 700 million; 1982: 1 billion people
- Too much people- shortage of resources, massive strain on social welfare, healthcare, education, surplus
of workers
- Social consequences
- Family planning policy : one child policy
- Social Tensions and Unrest
- displacement, social inequality, and corruption
- corruption: officials sold some companies in China for a cheaper price to foreigners
THE 1989 STUDENT MOVEMENT
- Background: Social Discontent and Unrest
Displacement and Inequality
- Migrant Workers
- Social Stratification in Urban Areas
Official Corruption and Nepotism
Calling for Greater Reforms in Party Politics and Democratization
- The 1986-86 Student Demonstrations
- Hu Yaobang 胡耀邦, General Secretary of CCP, Dismissed in 1987
- Zhao Ziyang 赵紫阳 became General Secretary, Li Peng 李鹏 became Premier
- The 1989 Student Movement
Problems continued: inflation, labor unrest, corruption
April to June 1989
- Hu Yaobang 胡耀邦 died April 15, 1989
- Student rally in Tian’anmen Square 天安门 to mourn Hu’s death
- May 4, 1989: over 100 000 marched in Beijing
- May 20, 1989: Li Peng 李鹏, Yang Shangkun 杨尚昆 declared Martial law
June 3-4, 1989, Crackdown
Evaluation of Consequences
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