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Lecture 1

GGRA01 Lecture One Thinking Geographically.docx

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Michael Bunce

GGRA01: Lecture One Thinking Geographically September 20, 2011 Globalization, Global Process and Local effects Example- Barbados- tourism is main attraction Eg- KFC (used through advertising ) part of globalization chain. It imposes American fast food taste and local shops co-exist with global Main Questions: - What is globalization and what process does it involve? - What is significant about understanding global processes? - What is thinking geographically? - What does a geographical perspective have to offer? Globalization No single definition but some agreement that it involves: - Global economic integration, global capitalism ) organization of elements of the global economy into a single system, joining different economic activities in different places into larger systems) - Global economic and political interdependence and interconnectivity, i.e. elements of the system are dependent on each other and involve high levels of interconnection on an increasingly global scale - Global culture: idea of global community, common global values, global village. Example, globalization of TV programs. The term ‘global village’ was coined by Marshall McCluhan. In his book The Gutenberg Galaxy (1962) he argued that print culture would be replaced by ‘electronic interdependence ‘with electronic media replacing visual culture with aural/oral culture. This would bring humankind together in a “collective identity” analogous to a village community. Think about the weaknesses in the notion of a global community. In fact globalization does not involve the full integration of all regions and societies into a global system. This is well-summarized in a chapter entitled “What Globalization is Not” in John Gray’s book, False Dawn; The Delusions of Global Capitalism. I have posted a PDF of these pages under the ‘Readings’. But globalization is boundary-broadening and space-shrinking Significance of global processes (globalization) It’s really happening and won’t go away (affects us on counter basis) It affects us all It generates big arguments about its impacts (pro/ anti globalization) Ideologies (belief system) and discourses (debate) of globalization A,) Pro-globalization: good for the economy and therefore good for people. Increases trade and integration into the global economy, therefore encourages economic growth which will trickle down even to poorer countries. (wealthy economy) B)Anti-globalization: increases disparities, environmental degradation, reduces national sovereignty. Benefits of any global economic growth will trickle up to richer countries, financiers, global corporations. C)Plus “Alter-globalization” (Murray, p.13) – the idea that globalization can result in positive and negative outcomes depending on how it’s constructed, this would involve changing rather than dismantling globalization. (music= exchange of values) Geographical perspective: thinking geographically What’s so geographical about globalization? Think about thus question in terms of how the main concepts of human geography apply to globalization. What does geography have to offer to the study of globalization? Read Murray, pp. 19-25. His three reasons for arguing that human geography offers a distinctive framework for studying globalization: i) Its concern with space, spatial interaction and different scales of activity ii) Human geography ‘peoples’ (i.e. adds human beings and societies) to discourses of globalization. iii) Human geography is an eclectic subject – it brings together cultural, environmental, economic, sociological, political aspects and methods of study. Human geography concerned with 6 main concepts: •Space •Place (and region) •Location •Spa
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