Cities are a detailed record of urban values, ideas and choices. They provide
evidence of past decisions.
Key concept 1- How did Cities Emerge?
o Control over water is essential
o Early cities were often established at key river locations
o Most important- raw materials, sources, transports, rich hinterland
Key concept 2-Fundamental Characteristics Of Cities
-large population size and density
- specialization in labour
- class structured society
-buildings and people
-source of income
Key concept 3-All cities share certain common qualities (urban forms)
-early decisions have long term impacts
-spatiality and differentiation between cities is primary topic of urban
-decisions contribute to diversity of outcomes.
- walls, water supply, infrastructure, streets and movements, private and
public places Key concept 4- Urban Forn is the spatial
arrangement of cities
-cities are a single phenomenon
- cities are differentform from rural, nature and wilderness -goal is to conquer nature
Key concept 5- Conceptual separation of city and country/nature is an
-cities are always linked to surrounding rural, agricultural
Industrial Revolution: 4 main changes
1. technology and productive capacity, new energy sources, increased wealth.
2. urbanizations. Rural to urban migration. much larger city populations
3. increase role of capitalism in structuring economic and social affairs
4.expansion of global markets and competition.
-new technology allowed expansion of production
- new energy sources-> industrial growth
-increased wealth, economic activity-> new products
-more efficient iron/ steel smelting -> reduced prices
-railways were opened
-shipping costs dropped -> global market and efficient producers
- growth of industrial production transformed conditions of life in cities.
- capitalism emerged due to increased production.
-expansion of global markets, integrate the rest of the world to an European
dominant economic system.
-population doubled, and that led to problems -housing conditions; overcrowding, how would people buy houses?
-poverty; insurance, no health care, social assistance, etc.
-water supply; needed new systems, who would pay for it?
Sewers; human waste became a problem.
-revolution of 1848 across Europe giving ruling elites good reason to be afraid of
-death rate very high in cities
-new idea emerged that cities must be consciously planned and built.
-clean water, sewerage, public transit, gas supply, streets, regulation of housing
could deliver solutions to urban crisis.
Urban Reform Movements
- water supply/sewers
- land use planning
-key change is linking the urban crisis with the achievable solutions
-garden cities and moderate civic reform were most influential ideas
-idea of cities as planned and rationally managed human environment became
-Modernity: belief of continuous progress, improvement, technical solutions to
problems; idea was influential
- the problem could be solved by investment, technology and new thinking
- rebuilding would not only give better living conditions but transform to a more
equal society. Utopia
-ideal or perfect community.
-ideas revolve around cities and building projects
-reverse of utopia
-imagining a terrible future
The Garden City
-people will move to new built towns; all classes would live in towns, inexpensive
houses, jobs nearby.
-built two towns based