▯ Lecture 3 – The Industrial City
▯ Industrial Revolution
4 main changes:
1) Technology and productive capacity
Coal, steam engine
Based on industrialization
3) Increasing role of capitalism.
4) Expansion of global market and competition.
▯ The Transformation of Production
Allowed for vast expansion of production, especially from 1800’s1900
New energy sources (coal) allowed for industrial growth.
Increased production of iron, steel, and machine tools
Increased wealth, new products.
▯ Transformative Technologies
Railways opened transportation and opened up new markets and resources.
Shipping costs dropped, allowing global market access
Telecommunications (telegraph) undersea cables increased connectivity.
Iron and steel smelting = reduced prices.
Industrial production transformed cities.
Huge rural to urban migration.
Cities grew much larger very quickly.
Transformed life in cities, more people were poor.
▯ Emergence of Capitalism
Capitalism spread all over the world through colonization.
Creation of modern market society.
Housing, water, food etc. all became subject to market price instead of selfprovided or provided
▯ Urban Crisis European urban population doubled between 18501880.
Poverty – insecurity no health care, employment insurance etc.
Injured people have no way of getting income for family.
Housing – Desperate overcrowding in inner city sections.
Water supply – Older technologies (wells) were no inadequate.
Sewers – Human waste disposal became major issue.
▯ Social Changes
Concentration of poverty in inner city slums.
There was always poor people but never packed together in such large numbers.
Growing fear of disease and disorder.
Behavior of lower class became alarming
Fear of a working class revolution
Decline of morals, and the belief that the poor were “lazy”.
Not going to church anym