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Lecture 3

GGRA03H3 - Lecture 3.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Andre Sorensen

The Industrial City- Lecture 3-January 21 , 2014 Industrial Revolution • 4 main changes o Technology and productive capacity, new energy sources, increased wealth o Urbanization- rural to urban migration, much larger city pops o Increasing role of capitalism in structuring economic and social affairs o Expansion of global markets and competition Transformation of Production • New tech and productive capacity allowed vast expansion of production especially from 1800s to 1900 • New energy sources, especially coal allowed growth • Vast increase in production of iron and steel, machine tools, especially in UK- doubling output 1850-1870 • Increased wealth, expansion of economic activity, new products Transformative technologies • Several technologies were transformative • More efficient iron and steel smelting = reduced prices • Railways opened up vast new markets and resources • Shipping costs dropped, allowing global market access by most efficient producers • Telecomm undersea cables increased connectivity Urbanization • Growth of industrial production transformed cities • Industries were labour intensive, paid little, required large workforces • Huge rural to urban migration • Cities had been mercantile, now became industrial, grew much larger very quickly • This transformed conditions of life in cities, with many more poor • Markets organized much more of everyday life Emergence of capitalism • Creation of modern market society • Extension of markets into ever larger spheres of human life • Housing, food, water, all became subject more and more to market price system instead of self-provided or provided by an employer • Capitalism spread through the entire world at this period through colonization Key concept #1 • Industrial revolution transformed society, especially cities Urban Crisis • European urbanization doubled 1850-1880 • Poverty- insecurity, no health care, employment insurance, social assistance, social housing, etc. • Housing- desperate overcrowding in inner city sections of the city • Water supply-older technologies such as wells were suddenly inadequate • Sewers- human waste disposal became a major issue Social Changes • Rural to urban migration- eclipse of older system of social order • Concentration of poverty on inner city slums o There had been poor people but never packed together in such numbers • Growing fear of insurrection, disease, disorder • Fear of a decline of morals, and belief that poor were just lazy, improvident Crisis and reform • Grim truth of big city life in the 19 century • Filthy, desperate, overcrowding disease, poverty, crime, misery • Urban crisis was crucible of multiple ideas about how to build cities • Socialism, anarchism, altruism and the fear of working class revolution prompted the develo
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