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GGRA03H3 (139)

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Andre Sorensen

Week 3 – The Industrial City th - 19 cent. Profound change in way people thought about cities as environments - For industrial cities to function without destroying their inhabitants (city residents) it is needed to manage public investments in infrastructure - Before most infrastructure was provided by private sectors and then given to customers - Urban crisis of the 19 cent. Exposed that this was not a viable way to sustain cities - The big change was realizing this public investment was necessary - Alot of institution that shape how cities work today was established then - Amount of investment in Toronto, there are major construction occurring (300 jobs atm) Industrial revolution th - It started in England, Scotland, in the early 18 cent. With increasing use of coal and steam engine - It was gradual (technological advances) - The second half of the 19 centaury when all of this new technology and processes and large pool of capital spreads around the world and transforms cities - Big changes: new technology ( there was a capcity to produce more goods than ever before, new energy sources such as coal to drive production line and steam engines) - Urbanization was another process of industrialization - Increasing role of capitalism - Expansion of global markets Transformation of production - There was ability to produce on a larger scale and for lower cost - Dramatic price revolution in the 19 cent. Especially with steel (machines, railways) - Drop in prices allowed greater access to a huge range of goods (such as industrial machinery, invention of weaving, textile manufacture etc) - Textile dropped to a fraction of the cost - Food prices dropped to because it was now getting shipped around - Prices revolutions based on global trade and mass production - Huge expansion of wealth, the increasing pool of capital in centers of Europe and N.Abased on shipping lths cost goods around the world - in the end of the 19 centaury the share of goods that were traded were higher than ( more free markets in 1890 and greater shares of trade around the world then compared to today) this is when globalization started. Transformative technologies - Railways operated - Integration in the world and rapid transportation of goods - Shipping costs dropped allowing global market access by most efficient producers Urbanization - These huge industries required 1000’s of people - They used a lot of people because technology was more basic - There is a push from rural areas because of mechanization (bigger tractors, more effective ways of harvesting) - People in rural areas were unemployed - Cities as places were transformed by this massive change - Not by the number of people but who was living in cities and how they made their livelihood - Before revolution it was elites and merchants (merchants were manufacturing in households) - In return for work you were given food and shelter - Factories became bigger and the economy was organized through markets - Instead of accommodations (food and shelter) people were buying things on open market - These were fundamental drivers of changing cities Emergence of Capitalism - Becoming a better way of organization - More processes were regulated through markets (housing, education, food supply etc) - This was the period of a market oriented society - The emergence of capitalism in the sense of industries were profitable - Churches were built into neighbourhoods (community infrastructures) - Club houses, YMCA’s etc. different kinds of provisions created without markets Key Concepts - Cities are fundamentally different after the 19 centh - Increased role of capitalism - Working population were supplied through price mechanism Urban crisis - Urban population in Europe doubles - This is associated with increase in urban poverty - There were no public services (public education, public transportation, employment insurance) - There was housing crisis - The poorest people (60% of people) the housing market did not function to provide standard of housing that was acceptable - Hall (2002) explains the gruesome qualities of houses in London, New York etc in 19 centuary - Overcrowding, collapsing stairs, people living in rookeries, casual use of spaces, no toilets and space, no sewers - People had little money to spend on housing, - People realized to having housing for poor people, there needed to be another way of investing in housing - Charities and the role of the state to help these people ( public housings etc) - Housing was a big problem then - Water supply was another problem - Wells became insufficient - Repeated cholera epidemics in Europe - People assumed that it was the dirt in the air - Second half of 19 cent. They built public water supplies - Supply of clean water became one of those transformative issues in this crisis because people were getting sick and dying - Sewers were built to transport human waste Social changes - Move to cities transformed social values - People were no longer regulated by traditional values in rural areas and urban areas - In terms of ideas of appropriate behaviour and how people can live together was radical around this time - Concentration of poverty in the cities resulted in behaviour in the poor that the elites found disturbing - Not going to church anymore, child prostitutions etc - Seeing mass of poor people in cities abandoning older social order/constraints and marriage etc. - Fear of working class revolution - The working class were overthrowing the governments ( in Russia in 1919) - This w
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