Class Notes (810,969)
Canada (494,410)
Geography (708)
GGRA03H3 (139)

Feb 4

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Andre Sorensen

Week 5- Megacities What are megacities? - Definition: 10 million population - There’s a qualitative difference between 1 million people and 10 million people What issues are significant to large size cities? - Huge cities have problems o Congestion (Toronto) people are getting tired of the commute that they move from the edge and into the central place where they work o Pollution it was first due to primitive technology, etc o Public service shortage (governments jobs become more challenging) o Land prices are higher the bigger the city gets (cheap land at the edge is farther away and more people are competing for space in the city) o Water, environmental carrying capacity (China and India issues) not sufficient Global cities in 2015 - Most of the megacities are in East and SouthAsia - China and S.Asia have huge concentration of megacities Why is it important? - it is increasing very quickly - 2 megacities in 1950 (NYC and Tokyo) - 2025 there will be 27 megacities with 22 of them in developing countries - The challenges of urbanization, environment and governance is extreme - There are qualitative changes in the city: economic changes, pollution, land values, housing issues, governance issues Special issues of very large-scale cities - What is the optimum city size? - Plato said 50 000 (there is the chance for people to have collective decision making in the city square) - When cities got big in Greece ( they set up colonies to set up other cities and export growth of cities) - After WW2, as we develop more data and monitoring about economics and technology, this question about what is a good size kept on coming up - City sizes depend on other variables (different infrastructure and economic processes/activities have different optimum sizes) it becomes a question of what people value? - Over a certain size there will be a diseconomy of scale - Economy of scale: there are lot of goods, the more you make the cheaper they are for units - air ports ( with bigger population/customers) it becomes reasonably cheaper when you are sharing the cost - Diseconomy of scale is when the bigger you get the more cost per unit - Cost goes up when size goes up - What would be a diseconomy of scale? o Housing o travel o More people who need to travel farther and using those facilities Special issues of very large cities -2 - The increased costs can be reduced by investments in infrastructures or technological innovations (putting in subways etc) - Factory emissions and car emissions have gone down due to monitoring and punishing people that break the laws - Most cities in rich countries have cleaner air than they did 40 years ago - If everything was at diseconomy of scale ( at a certain point city will stop growing) - There is a counter balancing of scale (things get more efficient at a lass cost) o Eg. Niche markets (only find opera houses in big cities and diverse restaurants, vinyl record stores, transit systems, airports for direct flights) - With larger market nearby gives huge investments for firms - Having large pool of workers for businesses that are located in big cities - Cities like NYC/ London and Tokyo became centers of capital flows not because they had big banks, but because they have largely skilled people in these cities - All of the legal services, accounting services cluster ( people that compete) - Enterprises want to locate in big cities, the cities and businesses grow - Growth (Toronto surpassed Chicago) - What are the municipal boundaries? - The idea of size equating to success is not always the case - If a city is growing it suggests that economy of scales (things generating growth) is outdoing diseconomy of scales - The main diseconomy of scale affect people (congestion, pollution, higher living costs, make it hard for people to have high standards of living) - As cities grow, then you will systematically grow, companies will be more profitable in larger cities Special issues of very large cities – 3 - Cities are economically vibrant because of economy of scales that show up in cities - Capacities to do in cities (niche markets and innovations cannot be done elsewhere) - Costs affect livability - Firms pay higher cost for transportations in cities (Toronto board of trade found that it costs over economics about 6 billion a year of congestion costs because our roads are clogged for long periods) Increasing Polycentricity - creating multiple centers (north york center, Mississauga square one etc) - higher number of jobs and land values and accessibilities is Downtown Toronto - as the region gets bigger, and people travel to one spot congestions increases and travel time increases - the traditional city forms (all the jobs and retail were in the center and the residential housing was on the edge) - retail moved to the edge now - j
More Less

Related notes for GGRA03H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.