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Canada (493,757)
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GGRA03H3 (139)
Lecture 3

GGRA Lecture 3.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Andre Sorensen

January 21, 2014 Lecture 3 th • Main idea: In the 19 century there was a fundamental change on how people thought of industrialization • There should be a huge investment in infrastructure • Urban crisis in the 19 C exposed that this wasn’t a good way to conduct cities • The big change was that realizing that public investment was necessary • Import to realize because a lot of institution were established in this time th • The consensus that arrived in the 19 century lasted only for a few years • Neo liberalism swept around the world, became a dominant idea Industrial Revolution: th • Industrialization revolution stated in the 18 century in England • 2 half of the 19 century there was a transformation of technologies and machines • There was: o new energy sources (coal) o urbanization o the increasing role of capitalism o expansion of global market • There was an ability to produce at a lower cost, particularly steel • Railways opened up transportation, technology of steam engine allowed integration the world • Shipping costs dropped dramatically • An incredible drop of prices that allowed access of a huge range of goods • Textiles dropped the half price of the previous cost • Overall the price of everyday good were dropped, this includes foods • Price revolution based on mass production and global trade • Huge expansion and increasing pools of capital • This opened globalization January 21, 2014 Urbanization • Growth of industrial production transformed cities • Bigger tractor, more efficient methods of capping • The transformation of agriculture into more capital allowed farmer to make a move to cities • Before industrialization merchant and elites lived in cities and after industrialisation there were variety of people • Instead of accommodation people were buying essentials for living in a open market • Much more of life ended up being regulated through the markets Emergence of Capitalism • The industries were very profitable • Extension of markets into ever larger spheres of human life • Capitalism spread into the entire world at this period through colonization Key concept 1: industrialization transforms society especially cities • Vastly increase role of capitalism • Water supply, public education, institutions, housing • Almost everything the working population needed was a pricing mechanism Urban Crisis: • European urban population doubled form 1850 to 1880 • Cities like Berlin, London there was a huge expansion • Increase in urban poverty o No insurance, public services, or healthcare o If you’re working and get injured there was an explosion of destitution • Housing crisis o there was overcrowding
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