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GGRA03H3 (139)
Lecture 5

GGRA Lecture 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Andre Sorensen

February 4, 2014 Lecture 5 What are megacities? • Un definition is 10 million • What sort of issues are significant when you get to very large type of cities • Congestion is a problem as well as pollution • Other significant are public services, water supply, air quality, and poverty • Vast majority in the growth of mega cities is in poor countries • The challenges and problems of megacities are extreme, you get to see everything magnified • Projection of population tend to be more reliable • Trends to change very slowly • We have a very good idea what’s going to happen population in 30 years • One of big questions are is what would we want to know about this phenomenon • Is there qualitative change is it something different when it gets bigger? KEY CONCEPT: megacities represent a new urban scale • Megacities are city regions with more than 10m populations • Most of the increase in megacities will be in developing countries • There is a qualitative difference in megacities: pollution, congestion, land values, housing issues, and governance issues • Scale is not just its larger, there’s a qualitative difference • Scale there 2 issues, people look at megacities as a size • In the last 20 years geographers have said that the particular size of pheromone produce different effects • Geographic scale is differentiates between spatial phenomena and spatial processes Special issues of very large scale cities: February 4, 2014 • Plato said that the best city size is 50,000 people • This had implications for policy • They tried to keep their cities at a appropriate size • The idea that there is a good size has a really long history • After ww2, this question about what is a good size kept on coming up • Harry Richardson a prof at ucla said that it’s impossible to determine what is the best city size • Different kinds of infrastructure, activities will have different sizes • There are clear things in very large cities where there’s diseconomies of scale Special issues of very large cities-2 • It’s possible to reduce the cost with infrastructure • Expected diseconomies of scale are congestion, pollution, long travel times, high and cost • If everything was diseconomies of scale at a certain point cities would stop growing • There’s a counter effect that cities would be efficient and there would be less costs • High quality public transit, large cities are needed Special issues of very large cities-3 • Large markets in every large cities provide huge customer bases • Labour market, having a very large pool of workers is a huge advantage • Cities like NY, London, and Tokyo became these centers of capital flows but because banks like to locate there, that’s where very highly people are • The idea that size equating success is problematic • If a city is growing it suggests that economies of scale is outgrowing diseconomies of scale • The diseconomies of scale effect a different phenomenon than economies of scale • As cities grow you would systematically
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