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Lecture 9

Lecture Nine

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Andre Sorensen

GGRA03 Lecture 9: November 9 Garbage - big changes every decade, not gradual - reveals fundamental issues of our cities, how we deal with problems - environmental, economic ideas, social policy - invisible, you toss it out and forget about it, but its something that doesnt disappear What is Garbage? - Benton-Short and Short, solid waste is defeind as material that has no apparanet, onvoouis or significant economic or beneficial value to humans that is inventioanlly thrown away or disposal - but it actually has a cost to deal with the issue - material from Neolithic periods, deposits from thousands of years - gradually have gotten deeper and deeper (3000 years of layers from past) - essentially urban garbage ex. Building torn down - people have always discarded such materials - but the composition of dumps and the amount of garbage changed radically after ww2 - introduction of plastic, research and technology in WWII, new materials, rockets, chemical industry - 19 century, many dumps, but less chance of being toxic, probably scraps of wod - in some countries, increased wealth, people can spend and buy products than they did 50 years ago and the reduced cost of stuff (such as packaging) Ex. Milk delivery, the use of glass bottles and picking finished bottles up (recycle) because of high package costs. - plastic was introduced, jugspackaging became a tiny cost of production and consumers just throw it away Huge increases in waste production - enormous increase of per capita, increased exponentially, flattens out after mid 1990s - changes in the retail system, the way you buy stuff, the amount of packaging waste Ex. Today, nails and screws are all packaged neatly Ex. Japan, packages within packages - most landfills will still be decomposing 300 yrs from now (still recognizable packaging wont disappear) - USA #1 in waste generated per capita 760kg per person per year - Canada is #5 640kg per person per year
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