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Lecture 11

Lecture eleven

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Andre Sorensen

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GGRA01 - Lecture 11: Tuesday, November 23, 2010 URBAN SPRAWL, SMART GROWTH, PATH DEPENDENCE What is Urban Sprawl? - dispersed development, at lower densities than existing urban areas - development with large areas of single-use development - automobile dependent development - a form of urbanization distinguished by leapfrog patterns of development, commercial strips, low density, separated land uses, automobile dominance, and a minimum of public open space (Gillham, 2002) [Leapfrog = undeveloped patterns] Why did this urban form develop? - rapidly growing car ownership - economic growth, increasing wealth - urban problems (congestion, pollution, housing costs, racism, poor schools, etc.) - emergence of large-scale housing industry - fragmented governments - cheap land Major Arguments Against Sprawl: 1) High Costs of Sprawl - one of the biggest problems with sprawl - for housing in remote locations, costs for services are all higher (but lower land costs means housing is cheaper) - but equally important is shift in who pays (shift in balance of private costs and public costs) - public costs including schools, hospitals, roads, emergency services, are much higher - higher social costs are not the developers concern - local governments get stuck with the bill 2) Car Dependence - arge single-use areas means cars are necessary for every trip - suburban street layouts make it difficult to walk - no close destinations, routes are not direct - many loops and lollipops; few sidewalks
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