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Lecture 2

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Andre Sorensen

Lecture 2 Summary September 21, 2010 TODAY Why is history important? Why did cities emerge? What defines Cityness? Major characteristics of Urban Form Changing relationships of CityNature Why is History Important? Understanding long-term patterns Urban systems are rapidly growing more complex, but most contemporary urban systems, structures, and infrastructures, are built incrementally on prior systems. Cities are code-generated The primary method for studying urban codes, and their results is historical analysis of urban form, growth, development, and change over time Codes are shared understandings such as behavior, expectations, social Cities are an expression of values Analysis of how cities change over time is a powerful tool for understanding both cities, and the civilizations that give rise to them Why did early cities emerge? 4 main competing theories Hydraulic Theory: Control over Water is essential - both for irrigation and as transportation corridors Resources necessary to create irrigation systems creates a need for a governance system that can mobilize large investments of labour power Early cities were almost always established at key locations along rivers Rural pattern of land use, irrigation, canals etc. then have long term impacts on urban development Economic Theories: Economic factors most important ports, raw materials, rich hinterland, energy sources Military Theories Settlements established at military-strategic locations form the core of long- term settlements Military pattern remains influential long after strategic value of settlement is gone 1
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