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Land Use in City.docx

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Jack Arn

GGRB05 WK08 June 24 Land Use in City Main points: 1) problematic; 2) selective discussion of models; 3) the political economy perspective; 4) agents/coalitions & production of the built environment; 5)burgess’s ecological model; 6)White’s revision of Burgess; 7) Harvey’s political economy model; 8) agency and the manipulated city I. Introduction A. Main problematic: what economic and socio-spatial processes contribute to land use structures of the city B. Four sets of theories available 1. Morphogenesis 2. Human ecology 3. Political economy 4. Postmodernism C. Principal focus – human ecology & political economy II. Selective discussion of models A. Human ecology models 1. Background to Chicago school a. Distinction b/w European scholars & Chicago school of 1920s b. Capitalism vs. Biological Analogies (‘natural’processes) c. Economic competition & Social Darwinist struggle for space  Social Darwinism is an ideology of society that seeks to apply biological concepts of Darwinism or of evolutionary theory to sociology and politics, often with the assumption that conflict between groups in society leads to social progress as superior groups outcompete inferior ones. d. Land use patterns a function of competition & economic division of labour e. Note – sociological, biological, neo-classical economic (Bid Rent Curves) origins  Bid-rent curve: a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate change as the distance from the central business district (CBD) increases. f. Common assumption  city central place dominates all other areas g. More recently  Regional perspective  Relative importance of multiple centers w/n the metropolitan region 2. 3 ecological models a. Concentric zone model – Burgess  In brief  Ideal, typical concentric zone model of residential differentiation  Invasion & succession  Family status & family structure  Model:  ZONE 1 – CBD  FIRST & SMALLEST  COMMERCIAL, SOCIAL, CULTURAL  HIGHEST LAND VALUES  MOSTACCESSIBLE  OUTER RING OF WHOLESALE FUNCTIONS – WAREHOUSES, LIGHT INDUSTRIES, MARKET  ZONE 2 – IN TRANSITION  FIRST SUBURBAN FRINGE – WEALTHIER  RESIDENTIALQUALITY DECLINES WITH INDUSTRIES MOVING IN GGRB05 WK08 June 24 Land Use in City  INNER RING – INDUSTRIAL  OUTER RING – DECLINING NEIGHBOURHOODS  HETEROGENEOUS IMMIGRANT POPULATION  ‘LUMPEN’& ‘SUB’PROLETARIANS  HIGHLY MOBILE POPULATION - TRYING TO MOVE OUT  LEAVE ELDERLYAND MARGINALIZED BEHIND  ZONE 3 – INDEPENDENT WORKING MEN’S HOMES  AREA WORKING CLASS HABITATION WITH CONTIGUOUS ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT IN FACTORIES  ZONE 4 - RESIDENTIAL ZONE  MIDDLE CLASS BETTER HOUSING  SOME SHOPPING CENTRESAS SMALLER VERSIONS OF CBD  ZONE 5 - COMMUTER BELT  UPTOAN HOUR COMMUTE TO CBD  SINGLE-FAMILY ‘DORMITORY’  ZONE 6 –AGRICULTURALDISTRICT  ZONE 7 – WIDER HINTERLAND  White’s revision of burgess model – 21 century city  Need to incorporate new ‘social forces’impinging on urbanization  Model:  Core: CBD  Zone of stagnation instead of zone of transition  Pockets of poverty and minorities – housing for the underclass, residential segregation in inner city  Elite enclaves – in select central & suburban locals  The diffused middle class – largest area – suburban zone
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