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Urban housing markets Residential location & Housing problems.docx

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Jack Arn

th GGRB05 WK09 Session07 July 8 Urban housing markets; Residential location & Housing problems I. Introduction group of high Y furthest out. E.g. London, NY, Paris, A. How to conceive of housing Tokyo B. Importance of housing in urban spatial terms  Highest Y occupy closes position to CBD; C. Housing markets, tenure type, mobility and Middle Y next; Lower Y pushed to periphery. E.g. neighborhood change Manila, Bangkok D. 3 main issues 5.Limits of bid rent curves 1.Neo-classical explanation of residential distributions a. Assumptions are limiting using bid rent curves b. Low Y are constrained in location possibilities 2.Behavioral explanation of intra urban mobility  As Y rises – preference for space are stronger 3.Perspectives on housing, housing market demand & than preference for accessibility supply, & housing related issues  Excludes competition from industry, government, II. Residential location theory planning interventions with zoning laws A. Neo-classical model: housing bid rent curves  The existence of multi modal cities, where 1.Y= income; Describes how different Y groups are accessibility point can be different, makes the model spatially distributed in a mono centric city. a simplification. 2.Assumption of the city B. Electric models – residential mobility a. a perfect market obtains 1.Pacione model: based on residential mobility and b. all property is owned by absentee landlords. neighborhood change c. individuals and households try to maximize a. An electric non-neoclassical, quasi-behavioural place utility model d. accessibility is oriented to the CBD b. Purports to explain why people move and the e. Different preferences obtain among different Y processes of neighborhood change groups as b/w accessibility and space. 2.Why people move – residential relocation f.Higher Y groups can manifest a bifurcation in those a. Forced preferences can obtain different spatial spreads b. Voluntary 3.Two cases  Avalue expectance model a. Causes for these cases  Decision to move – conceived as a product of  Excluding competition from industry and stress, based on ‘aspiration set’ government.  Importance of place utility and constraints  Planning intervention with zoning laws.  Neighborhood change: 5 stages  The existence of multi-nodal cities where the  Gentrification vs.Abandonment (2 extremes) accessibility point can be more diffused.  The dynamics of gentrification b. Spatial arrangements of 3 Y groups III. Intra urban mobility – the attempt at an explanation  (1)Higher Y group split in accessibility vs. space A. Life-cycle changes related to mobility preference. 1.Completion of secondary education  (2)Higher Y has more preference for 2.Completion of tertiary education accessibility due to transportation problems. 3.Completion of occupational training training 4.Bid rent curves 4.Marriage a. Assumptions: (same as II-A-2) 5.Birth of 1 child b. Three graphs: 6.Birth of last chile st  Low Y closest to CBD; Middle Y next; High Y 7.1 child reaches secondary school age furthest out with lowest density; (General) 8.Last child leaves home  Low Y pushed out of closest position to 9.Retirement CBD->higher density; One group of high Y occupy 10. Death of a spouse. closest position; Middle Y pushed further out; Other B. City-four types of space th GGRB05 WK09 Session07 July 8 Urban housing markets; Residential location & Housing problems 1.Action space: familiar areas  Acollection of various submarkets 2.Activity space: daily movement territory  Needs to be disaggregated by house type; tenure; 3.Awareness space: have information of housing geographical location opportunities b. Locationally fixed good: a. Search space: [subset of awareness space] – new  Can be sold only in that geographical location residential locations evaluated  Cannot be placed on different markets  Changes with time in city c. Unusual economic characteristics  Problems and barriers to gathering information  Mostly determined by sales of existing IV. Housing issues properties A. Urban housing  New buildings often only increase housing stock 1.Housing: a complex commodity by 1%/Annum a. Various ideas B. 2 extremes in housing issues  Housing, home neighborhood 1.Gentrification: a circular process which can lead to  Purchased for a variety of reasons re-gentrification and super gentrification b. Numerous submarket a. Theories of gentrifi
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