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Social Space, Justice & Power in cities.docx

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Jack Arn

GGRB05 WK10 7.15 : Social Space, Justice & Power and the advanced service sector in cities also, a substantial growth of very poorly paid  [Urban Deprivation] low-skilled, low-income, flexible, part-time, and Appearance nonunionized work. Proportion of social economic rates  [Multiple deprivation] Poverty Multiple social and economic problems in urban areas 5 principal models: explain the cause 1. Unemployment and dependence upon social Culture of poverty based on individual welfare Lazy, unwilling to work, criminals, “if you are poor, Casual relationship b/w unemployment and crime it‟s your problems” Mass unemployment is often coincide with an Transmitted deprivation increase in reordered crime. “The cycle of poverty”: families transfer their Unemployment might be a motivation for crime poverty to children, b/c of their deficiencies and Crime and delinquency (children exposed to criminal unhealthy family relations subcultures) Institutional malfunction Neighbourhood crime and unemployment levels Different departments don‟t work together higher than the national average are common in Solution: cooperate structure economically deprived communities Maldistribution of resources & opportunities Increased mortality and morbidity Political powers are handed to the strong, while the Poor housing and homelessness, damaged health weak people are excluded Lower self-esteem/Clinical depression Solution: reverse discrimination Abandoned, neglected, and isolated physical Structural class conflict environment Poverty is a product of social conflicts (e.g. in Poor landscaping Marxist theory, the problem of poverty is an Lack of leisure facilities inevitable outcome of capitalism) Physical isolation The theories and models of urban deprivation are over Social-spatial segregation academic deprivation, b/c they guide the decision of Isolation - Invisible poverty policy makers when looking for a solution to fight Stigmatization poverty and deprivation. Obstacle to obtaining employment  [The emergence of a new urban underclass in the NIMBY/ environmental racism post-industrial society]  [Urban “Food Deserts”] Since the 1980s, the gap b/w rich and poor has Neighbourhood that do not have access to good widened in many Western societies quality and affordable food (e.g. large grocery stores The shrinkage of the welfare state. that offer fresh and affordable foods needed to Reduction in government expenders on welfare maintain a healthy diet) are labeled as “food deserts” after the fiscal crisis These neighbourhoods are often considered to be Global market forces socially-distressed, characterized by low average the global-dual city: 2 separated kinds of jobs household incomes decline in manufacturing employment in Western Food security refers to the availability of healthy food societies/cities, which used to be a source of in an area and an individual‟s access to it middle income jobs The lacy of food security and nutrition is a mojor manufacturing employment mover outside the issue in many N.Acommunities western city Food deserts and priority neighbourhoods in Toronto: in post industrial/post modern/ global cities a The map demonstrates the existence of food deserts substantial growth of highly skilled, well paid jobs in Toronto and their location relative to the 13 in the head quarters of transnational corporations priority neighbourhoods (outlined in black) and subway lines (yellow). Middle class flight to the suburb The grey shaded areas on the map in represent the Obsolescence parts of Toronto that are within 1km, considered to be Ageing of built env‟t and social infrastructure a reasonable walking distance, of a major grocery Unintended public policy outcomes store. Suburban subsidies, including the construction of Shades of purple and red represent the areas of the freeways and aids to single-family-home onership city that do not fall within 1km of a major grocery Exploitation – spatial store. These areas of the city are considered food The city is manipulated by more powerful suburbs deserts. Exploitation – institutional The distinction between purple and red highlights the Red-lining by financial institutions; tax concessions; existence of food deserts within the priority suburbanization of factories neighbourhoods (pink) because it is these Structural change communities that often have fewer resources for Deindustrialization and economic decline accessing healthy food outside of their own Fiscal crisis neighbourhood Inequitable/unfair tax burden; social and For residents who live in Toronto‟s inner suburbs and infrastructure costs, i.e. high welfare for populations Priority Neighbourhoods, access to good quality and in the inner city affordable food is a growing challenge Class & racial conflict In Toronto, food deserts have become a prominent racial and class polarization feature of the city‟s “inner suburbs” and Priority the inner city problem Neighbourhoods explanations for geographies of deprivation The initial communities living in these suburbs were (problems of devline in inner cities and some outer middle class and had access to a personal vehicle and cities) + characteristics of inner city decline as a result the communities were designed with little the changing nature of the welfare state need for nearby commercial development in mind. socio-spatial manifestations – inner city vs. outer city Today, however, the citizens who live in these problems communities primarily depend on public transit or  Suburban Exploitation? walking to access grocery stores and healthy food. Subsidization On the one hand – Suburban residents who work in the central city benefit from a number of services, including police, fire, sanitation, and road services, cultural and recreational facilities provided by the city and located in the inner city->central city residents are subsidising suburban residents (free riders) On the other hand – Suburban residents contribute to the city‟s tax based indirectly (by spending money) + their workplace add to the property tax of the city  [Inner city problem] Do suburbs exploit the central city? (intra-urban In many Western countries, the inner-cities are the explo‟n) locus for poor living conditions + the dispersal of the Cost-benefit assessment – inconclusive „inner city‟problems to other parts Political fragmentation & fiscal disparities Explanation for inner-city decline Pol frag‟n means the fragmented pol
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