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3rd world urbanization.docx

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Jack Arn

nd rd GGRB05 WK11 Session09 July 22 3 world urbanization rd [Main points:An ongoing urban transformation in 3 world] Beyond historical precedent Overall near 50% if not past tipping point Primate, mega & meta-city phenomena ->Primate city: one city overall dominate the whole urban hierarchy Unrelated to conquerable level of industrial or even general rdonomic development ->In 2000, in terms of size, 8 of 10 top large cities are in 3 world countries ->By 2015, Tokyo and NY will drop out the list ->How can underdevelopment coincide w/ such a significant growth „Hyperurbanzation‟- overurbanization ->Governments can‟t offer enough housing for the growing urban population ->Related to general modalities of underdevelopment & incorporation into world market Fueled by rural-urban migration, urban growth, & reclassification ->E.g. Shanghai changes on its boundaries, increased in city size Creates a unique urban social structure ->Marginality; ->urban involution ->->absorb population by informal sector rather stagnant, formed ones ->Informal sector, not working class. The political consequences of major concern I. Causes: Macro factors & Urban Residential Outcomes A. Inequality & poverty 1. On a world scale (fundamentally important) 2. Internally- domestically 3. Unemployment – including underemployment & „misemployment‟ B. World Bank – 2000: 1. 3 billion people living on - $2/day 2. 1.2B live in „extreme poverty :800 million live in hunger 4. income inequality worsened in 33 of 66 LDC‟s II. Why do slums develop? (according to un habitat:) A. Rapid rural – urban migration B. Increasing urban poverty & inequality C. „Marginalization‟of poor neighborhood 1. People are poor b/c they are living in marginalized areas. D. Inability of urban poor to access affordable land for housing: land issues E. Insufficient investment in new low income housing F. Poor maintenance of Existing housing stock rd 1. Differences in housing conditions in different 3 world cities – 6 factors (Gilbert & Gugler) a. Differing levels of per capita income b. Distribution of wealth c. Rate of urban growth (e.g. Mexico) d. Form of societal organization  Socialist vs. peripheral capitalist vs. NIE nd rd GGRB05 WK11 Session09 July 22 3 world urbanization e. Differences in responses of poor in each city f. Government intervention – form of this III. Understating the problem A. Source of hyperurbanization 1. Historical processes related to consequences of incorporation into world market 2. Stages: mercantile, colonial, post-colonial a. Primate cities b. Processes leading to movement off the land c. Impact of political location of capital city d. ISI & EOI e. Social structure – formal & informal or dominant & subordinate 3. „Urban Involution‟ a. Oppose to urban evolution (tertiarization) IV. Original development of capitalism – the historical precedent A. Articulated 1. Agricultural revolution & Industrial revolution a. Movement off the land – rapid urbanization stage 2. Decline of crafts, rise of manufacturing employment a. Initially wretched living conditions 3. Creation of a two class predominant social structure a. Subsequent history of working class struggles, state interventions,& housing improvements b. More recent post-industrial developments & complexity of social structure B. Peripheral capitalism 1. Disarticulated a. Agricultural production supplies industries development & oversea selling b. Luxury goods for local elites 2. Primate cities – beginning in mercantile period, colonial, post-colonial reinforcement 3. Hyperurbanization – beyond rates of historical precedent a. Unrelated to productive level b. Urban involution, overurbanization 4. Segmented labor force: formal & informal 5. Mass of urban population in „informal sector‟ a. Dominant/subordinate; integrated/marginal; included/excluded b. „informal proletariat‟; sub-proletariat; lumpenproletariat; marginals c. Poorly organized, no collective bargaining rights 6. Problems at residential level a. Seemingly unresolved & worsening over time 7. [notes] precise appellation for the non working class proper underclass is variable and debatable – yet important are our understanding of the social structure , political consciousness, forms of political action, and political potential V. The planning conundrum A. Coping with the „ecological disaster‟ B. Proving sufficient urban infrastructure & services C. The particular issue of „housing‟& what form this should take nd rd GGRB05 WK11 Session09 July 22 3 world urbanization D. The role of neighborhood self help associations & the planning process E. The broader issue of „urban hierarchical balance‟, new towns, new capital cities, & regional planning F. How to deal with current situation & stem the flow of ongoing & future movement of the land G. Can there be a viable „urban planning solution‟outside macro issues of inequality & balanced development H. Wo
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