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Lecture 5

GGRB05 - Lecture 5.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Denisse Macaraig

GGRB05 – Lecture 5 URBAN MOBILITY and TRANSPORTATION - Reading: Chapter 13 - Journal: Travel and Housing Costs in the Greater Toronto Area. Today’s Objectives - What are the connections between transportation and urban form? - What are the effects of auto dependence? - Examining mobility Vehicles: Some Context - 1 Billion cars manufactured on the last 100 years - 700 Million cars in use today - World car travel is estimated to triple between 1990 to 2050 Urban Transport Issues - Traffic flow and congestion - Pedestrians - Off-peak use - Crashes - Public transportation crowding - Parking Costs - Real monetary costs involve insurance, governments budget maintaining roads, nothing’s free - Intrinsic costs involve your time spent driving and not spent on better things in life (such as with family, doing other things, etc.) Complicating Factors - Environmental Impact - Climate change affected by transportation - Sustainability Importance of Transportation Economic efficiency - Integration of labour and goods requires an integrated and functioning transportation system Quality of life - Transportation increases all of your life choices Ex. Living, working, recreation, and leisure are all elated to transportation Mobility - The ability to move between different activity sites Accessibility - The number of activities or opportunities available within a given distance or travel time Car Culture - It’s a North American culture to get your license at 16 yrs old and use a car - Tied to class, personal wealth, and achievement - Defines “luxury” - Exhibits status to its owner Ex. Sexual desire, speed, career success, family, masculinity, etc. Automobility: Definition - The focus of the automobile and the space(s) it requires, as the centre of everyday life - There is a connection and relationship between cities and cars nd st - 2 largest source of individual consumption for most people (1 is housing) Transport and Urban Form - Transport technology is a key determinant of urban growth and the type of built form we witness at the municipal scale th - Until beginning of 20 century, people had limited transportation options - New technology expands personal mobility Transportation and Urban Form Relationships - See table 13.1 Pre-Industrial - Defence, marketing, political showmanship - Compact Early Industrial - Basic industry/manufacturing - Streetcars, introduction of public transportation - High-density suburbanization Industrial - Tertiary services, higher-level manufacturing - Increase public transportation, introduction of the private transportation - Lower-density suburbanization Post-Industrial - Quaternary services - Massive increase in private transportation - Low-density suburbanization, decentralization - Retail services moved outside of the city and created their own nodes Growth and Transportation Development - Box 13.1 - Opening up transportation allows urbanization - Increase of automobile requires more space - As densities decrease, distances to services increase Walking-horsecar Era (1800-1890) - Very high density Streetcar Era (1890-1920) - Compact form - Radial trolley routes - City was “tracked” Recreational Automobile Era (1920-1945) - “Tracked” city was converted to suburbs Freeway Era (1945 - ) - Development of highways promoted sprawl and growth of urban boundaries - Transition to a polycentric metropolis - Increase in automobiles demanded massive amounts of space - Roads and parking reduced densities - Decrease in densities increases distances to services - Governments struggle to provide adequate services - Creates very real problems, such as segments society Freeway Era (1945 - ) 5 Growth Phases (identified by Pacione) 1) Bedroom Community (1945-1955) - The city built more subways, bought streetcars from US when US was transitioning to cars - Post-war residential building boom, an urban form in East York, Beaches, etc. - Interstate system was being built 2) Independence Stage (1955-1965) - Development of nodes involving suburban offices and industries - Introduction of suburban office parks 3) Catalytic Growth (1965-1980) - Rise of c
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