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Lecture 3

GGRB05 - Lecture 3.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Denisse Macaraig

GGRB05 – Lecture 3 May 30, 2011 NATIONAL URBAN SYSTEMS Reading: Chapters 4, 5 and 6 - Toronto Community Foundation: Toronto’s Vital Signs (full report) Objectives - Types of Urban Regions - Key roles of cities - Canada-US comparison - Central Place theory - The Mercantile Model - Growth 2 Approaches to Urban Geography 1) Study of systems of cities 2) The study of city as a system - Cities are not independent, therefore its more useful to examine “system of cities” - Cities are not stagnant, it is continuously changing, so are the urban patterns Global Urban Patterns 3 Factors change urban patterns 1) Urban growth - Population increase 2) Urbanization - Proportion of total population increasing in urban area 3) Urbanism - The social properties and characteristics of living within an urban area Causes of Urban growth - Net in-migration - Natural population growth Urbanization is Contemporary - The rapid urbanization we are witnessing over the past 125 years is unique - Urbanization spread around the world during the 20 century - In 1950, Africa, Middle East, and Asia were mostly rural. Today they are rapidly urbanizing - More Developed Regions (MDRs) urbanization has slowed - Less Developed Regions (LDRs) urbanization is expected to continue for decades Ex. Dubai, was once a desert, but has urbanized into an urban centre Megacities and Metacities Megacities = Population > 10 million (debateable)  19 Megacities today, predicted to be 27 by 2025 Metacities = conurbations of population > 20 million  Currently only Tokyo Conurbation – a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas Global/World City - Cities that command a disproportionate amount of economic activity within their respective region - They are centres for socio, economic, political, and cultural capital - London Tokyo, New York City Types of Urban Regions City-Region - Places a focus on the major employment centre in a given region - Functional relationship between city and region, “Central Place Theory” Conurbation - Coined by Sir Patrick Geddes “Cities in Evolution” - Continuous built up area formed through the growth of adjacent cities/towns - Also describes multi-nodal functional units Urban field (Common term in US) - An area encompassing the urban core and its country-side/hinterland - Population of at least 300,000 Megalopolis - Used by Lewis Mumford “Culture of Cities” and Jean Gottmann - Adjacent urbanized areas, with minimum population of 25 million Ex. Quebec City-Windsor Corridor, US Megalopolises (Pacioneo Fig. 4.9) Key Roles of Cities - Cities play a key role in economies of both nations and regions - World cities are located in world’s largest economies - Capital = wealth and assets used for investing - Capital is important, but surplus capital is even more important - Cities are engines for economic release, affects real estate - Cities started because of capital, such as London, New York, Dubai, etc. City Types and Functions - Headquarters: Corporate centres, law, communications, media Ex. NYC - Innovation centres for R&D Ex. Silicon Valley, Waterloo ON - Production, manufacturing, warehousing Ex. Detroit - Port cities: Legal/Illegal, goods and services Ex. Miami - Housing: Specialized forms Ex. Tampa FL - Leisure, amusement, convention areas Ex. Las Vegas Specialization of Cities - Openness and interdependence has resulted in a high level of specialization - Comparative advantages are exploited and facilitate high levels of differentiation - Some cities specialize in various roles - Manufacturing (ex. Oshawa) - Corporate headquarters (ex. Toronto) - Resource extraction (ex. Sudbury) - Tourism (Ex. Niagara Falls) - Government (ex. Washington DC) Regional Systems: North America - International comparisons can be a useful indicator - Cities are connected, so similar cities will face similar challenges and pressures - Population is a useful indicator for North America, because a growing population may indicate an increasing economic prosperity - Growth alone doe
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