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Lecture 7

GGRB05 - Lecture 7.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Denisse Macaraig

GGRB05 – Lecture 7 Planning and Land Use Review from Last Week - How is housing produced? - How do housing markets work? - Why do they fail to supply housing for everyone? - How do neighbourhoods change? - How does government play a role in the housing market? - Land is a “fictitious” capital - It is scarce, and a large portion of the city focuses on land for housing - The amount of rentals affect supply of housing for everyone, it can fail or succeed Today - Chapters 8 and 9 - Urban Planning - Urban Morphology - Descriptive Models - Major Urban Actors - Growth Coalitions City Planning: Goals - Managing co-existence within different types of spaces - Creating and maintaining place qualities - It attempts to setup and protect norms - It is not just space; it is a place that matters - Public and Private Spaces - Provide for neglected needs - Protecting threatened values and heritages - Defining ground rules for public spaces - Mediating conflicts in public spaces City Planning: Core Values - Protect the “commons” (people with common income bracket) Ex. Tragedy of the Commons, derived from UK, if there is a common pasture for people to graze their sheep, then if one person abuses the resource then it affects everyone - Empower people to make them a part of the decision-making process, and how the city forms (transparency throughout decision-making process) - Everybody wants to live in a liveable and equitable city, something “worth protecting” - High competence in both the arts and sciences - Building cities that are liveable and equitable Some Thoughts - In order to understand cities we need to understand how they are planned - In order to understand planning, we have to understand humans - If we don’t plan them properly, we end up with something like Detroit - The goals and core values of planning seem like common sense - Despite this reality, we are humans! - Politics is everywhere  the personal is political - There are deep fractures in our belief and understanding on who should be responsible Ex. The role and amount of government intervention in both planning and taxation City Planning - Urban areas are influenced in terms of development - Policy - Planning - Planning aims to address and manage urban change - To achieve the common good - The level of government and its responsibility for planning differs from one state to another - There are many things to consider and balance City Planning: History th th - Cities in the 19 and early 20 century were different - Scary, dirty, industrialized - Social polarization - Degrading natural areas - Expanding slums - Political strife - Epidemics, violence - City planning developed as an attempt to manage urban change in the industrialized city - Government intervention was seen as the answer - The public must play a role if they are the ones who have a vested interest - Who’s common good is contested and debated? Government, civil society, or business? Urban Morphology Urban morphology – the study of the formation of human settlements, and their transformation - M.R.G. Conzen (1907-2000) developed the field greatly in the 1950s and 1960s Proposed that: - Land use is most easily changed - Buildings are more permanent - Street layouts and property divisions are the least changing - Urban Planning - History - Town plan analysis, one of the oldest research methods of urban geography - Study of patterns of change over time using old maps as evidence - Recent developments of computer software, GIS, remote sensing have led to a revival of morphological research Stakeholders in the Production of Built Environments - Different stakeholders all have a vested interest - Institutions, developers, lenders, landlords, governments all exhibit some degree of economic and political power that affects supply and demand - To know how to build a city, you have to consider the motives, goals, and desires of the stakeholders - Understand power and how it is negotiated - Most dominant trigger in urban change is economics Economics as a Trigger for Urban Change - Capitalism? Growth? - Growth Machine Theory (Harvey Molotch and John Logan) - Connections between cities and their respective political economies - Every city-state-nation is in search for growth, always in competition with other cities Growth Machines - Main stakeholders in growth coalitions are those with capital who are most bound to a particular place - They either own large amounts of land, or have vested fortunes to those that do - Growth machine proponents actively will try to enhance property values and are often opposed to regulations that restrict their development options - Growth coalitions may take the form of public-private partnerships with local elected officials and bureaucrats working together to boost their common interests (a systematic bias towards growth and development - Political growth machine  public-private partnerships Ex. Building of 407etr, extending the Sheppard line - Growth coalitions will lobby and promote their agenda to those who have power (ex. local governments) to encourage mega-projects, planning decisions, etc. - In the same way there are special interest for growth, there are special interests against growth Ex. NIMBY = Not In My Back Yard, BANANA = Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anything Economics as a Trigger for Urban Change - Municipal governments are weak, and pro-growth business coalitions can exercise power over the local governments, such as planning policies, investment in infrastructure, etc. - Actors include: Speculators, developers, real estate agents, financial institutions, households, professionals, gov
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