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Lecture 8

GGRB05 - Lecture 8.pdf

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Denisse Macaraig

GGRB05 – Lecture 8 Urban Communities, Space and Place - Readings: Chapter 15, 17 and 18 - Why Public vs. Private spaces matters Urban Space - Employment - Consumption - Residential - Transportation - But what is public or private? City Planning: History - City planning developed as a way to manage urban change in the industrialized city - City of “dreadful night” - Idea of cities as places of disease (such as typhoid epidemics), filth, degrading natural areas, expanding slums, political strife, violence, etc. th th - People began moving from rural to the city in the 19 and early-20 century - Public has to play a role if they are the ones who have a vested interested - Some movements such as Ebenezer Howard’s “Garden City” was seen as a solution - Government intervention seen as an answer - Manage the commons Beaux-Arts Architecture - An example of governments playing a role, giving people a reason to take care of their cities, take part in a civil way - Neoclassical architecture style taught at Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris - The idea that you can build beautiful environments, structures, etc., there was civic pride - Influenced the City Beautiful Movement City Beautiful Movement th th - A reform movement in N.A urban planning and architecture (Late-19 and Early-20 century) - The built environment matters - People’s perception of their environment fosters positive behaviour - Something that is warm, welcoming, comfortable, good lighting, etc. - Beauty not just for any reason, but for the common good - Beautiful parks, buildings, etc., also called the “White City” for its white pillared buildings Ex. Union station is a white pillared building - This was all a response to cities being scary places, gave people a sense of pride, built upon “Garden City” movement - There came a time when the US attempted to identify and distinguish itself - Grand buildings and fountains built around park - Shallow pools of water, centered with central buildings - Grand boulevards and parkways - White-pillared buildings (“White City”) Ex. Washington D.C Urban Spaces and Places - Space and Place from a geographic point of view - Yi Fu Tuan – Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience (1977) - Ted Relph – Place and Placelessness (1976) - Some spaces can be placeless, generic areas, with little to no meanings and connections to one’s own psyche Urban Communities Space: - Space is everywhere, many definitions Place: - It comes to existence when humans give meaning to space and further and delineate Ex. Calling a place “home” - People then become attached to certain places - Can be physical, abstract, or both - Home, space, and place are not static, they are continuously evolving - Space and place is contingent on various factors - The idea of the “city” is not just parks, factories, etc. it’s what people perceive it to be, therefore it has different meanings for all citizens Public vs. Private Space - Why does this really matter? - Why should we care about spaces in the City? Public Goods - In a city, there are things that everyone needs Ex. Roads, bridges, streetlights, recreation centres, parks, pools, hospitals, etc. - True public goods have 3 characteristics - Joint supply (zero marginal cost) - Non-Excludability, impossible to prevent others using - Non-Rejectability, in order for a public good to be fully consumed, it must be useful - Few goods and services exhibit these characteristics perfectly, but there are some that show a significant level Ex. Legal regulations, street lighting, road networks Urban Communities - The idea of public and private spaces, in terms of planning it matters, what and who we’re building the city for - Community as a concept can be subject to different definitions - Groups of people living in a geographically distinct area - The quality of relationships within the group, members bound by common characteristics such as culture, ideas, religion, etc. - A group of people engaged in similar social interactions, such as in a neighbourhood Urban Communities: Clusters - Systematic discrimination an important factor in residential segregation of ethnic
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