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Lecture 9

GGRB05 - Lecture 9.pdf

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Denisse Macaraig

GGRB05 – Lecture 9 – Urban Governance Objectives - Reading Chapter 20 Some Thoughts - The importance of cities - Cities are important, but how we govern locally will determine its success and failures - Political will and decision-making are key - The role of science and technology will not solve the problems Urban Governance: Questions - The role of municipal governments? - Municipal government and appropriate size? - What is the right size? - Each case and context is different - The city is a social construct; people view it as a space and place for the wealthy, the impoverished, etc. - The politics is always changing, it’s always what we’re thinking about Federal Government - They collect the most money (taxes) and transfer some to the Province, and from the Province it is discretionary whether it gets transferred to the Local governance - What happens at the Federal level (Parliament) has little to do in your daily lives, it is the local governance (the city) that affects your everyday lives Politics - Robert A. Dahl (1915 - ) - Relationship involving power, rule, and authority - Conflict is required for politics - Institutions are formed to deal with conflict - Policy is the outcome of politics - Power is the politics - Authority is the bureaucracy behind power Power vs. Authority - Power = A gets B to do something it wants - Authority = B does it because it is proper/relevant Rational Persuasion - The nicest form of influence by telling the truth and explaining why someone should do something Ex. The doctor convincing you to stop smoking Manipulative Persuasion - A notch lower, means lying or misleading to get someone to do something Ex. Telling your kids not to sit close to the TV or else you’ll go blind Inducement - Offering rewards or punishments to get someone to do something Ex. Bribery Power - Threatens severe punishment Ex. Jail, loss of job, “If you don’t behave then we won’t go to Canada’s Wonderland” Coercion - Power with no way out, you have to do it Physical Force - Backing up coercion with use or threat of bodily harm Civic Reform - Garden city, City Beautiful movement - Focus is on what is going on and how to address the city’s worst aspects Ex. Change the economy, prevent diseases - Civic reform made city life “better” - Development of potable water, sewers, building regulations, zoning/development, etc. - Cities restricted types of private development, which provided stability in the built form - Change came slowly because the built environment changes slowly - Local level governments expanded their range and scale of responsibilities Ex. Providing other social services Role of Local Government - Local governments should adhere and promote basic values - Liberty from central authority - Encourage participation of citizens - Increase efficiency of government Government and Governance - Seem to come about in the 1980s - Different kinds and utilizations Ex. Corporate governance, global governance - The government was the problem, governance as a solution - The “relationship” between government and civil society - The city is too big What is governance? (2 definitions in slides) 1) Existing institutions can be harnessed in new ways and that cooperation occurs in a fluid and voluntary basis among localities and that people can regulate themselves through horizontally linked organizations 2) The larger process of how governments and their officials operate and how they relate to groups of people, local communities, and residents who require their help and support Canada - The Coat of Arms - 3 levels of government - Federal  Provincial  Municipal Provinces and Municipalities - It is the provincial government that shapes cities, it decides on its size - In Canada, the federal government is not as strong as in the US - The federal government in Canada has very little say in city growth; it is the Provincial government that has a strong commanding control of structure in creating cities - Provinces give municipalities legal power - Municipalities are “creatures” of the province - The province dictates whatever cities can do (because of The Constitution Act 1982, gives no powers to local governments) Municipal Re-Org
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