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Lecture 10

GGRB05 - Lecture 10.pdf

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Denisse Macaraig

GGRB05 – Lecture 10 Urban Greenspaces and Sustainability Objectives - Textbook Reading Chapters 19 and 30 - What are greenspaces? - A cities context - Why greenspace matters? - Urban liveability - Sustainability - A cities paradox Political Ecology Political Economy – the relationship between politics (government) and businesses (private sector) - If there is a political economy, then there is a political ecology Political Ecology – the relationship between government (politics) and nature (environment) - A cultural geography that studies human-environment relationships through the relationships of patterns of resource use to political and economic forces Nature - The “social construction of nature” - Contingent on a variety of factors - Space and place - History - Temporal - Real and perceived Greenspaces - Broad definition that varies in scope  Greenfields  Neighbourhood parks  Greenlands  Protected areas (national, provincial, local)  Greenways  Wildlands  Agricultural lands  Urban or rural  Gardens  Small or large - There are official, jurisdictional, political, social and cultural aspects tied to greenspaces Greenspaces: Places - Edward Osborne Wilson (1929 - ) - American biologist - Biophilia (1984) - Humans as a consequence of evolution have the innate tendency to focus life and life-life processes - People are drawn to nature, bound to living things - It is inscribed in the brain itself expressing out evolutionary experience Recreation and Leisure - Sports - Tourism - Free time - The time available to an individual when the basic disciplines of work, sleep, and other basic needs have been met Benefits of Recreation - The attainment of a desired condition, an improved condition, and/or the prevention of an unwanted condition - Personal - Physical/mental - Social - Strengthening of relationships - Economic - Increased productivity, reduced health costs - The majority of Canada’s population live in cities (80%) Restorative Effects - Relationship with nature - Escape from social/physical pressures - Achievement/challenge/exploration - Autonomy/independence/freedom - Personal reflection/recollection - Risk-taking/action/excitement - Family togetherness Spirituality and Meditation - Growing emphasis placed on the importance of mental wellness - This spiritual aspect may enable one to open up to the interdisciplinary and holistic prospect of leisure Urban Park Creation - Frederick Law Olmstead (1822-1903) - Central Park, Manhattan, NY - Mount Royal Park, Montreal, QC Early Ideas: Building Links - William Holly White (1917-1999) - The Last Landscape - Looking at natural connections through rivers, lakes, ravines, greenspaces Greenbelt Definition - A planning strategy and land-use policy - Used to limit unrestricted sprawl - Prevent neighbouring towns from merging - Assist in protecting the countryside - Preserve historic/rural/pastoral values - Promote urban regeneration? Other Definitions: - Ecological significant corridors and natural systems - Recreational greenways, where users find a network of trails and water link land and water- based recreational sites and areas - Greenways that provide historical heritage and cultural values - Natural or open land surrounding cities or towns, often containing a mix of public land and privately held land on which development restrictions are placed Urban Majority: Liveability - If cities are so important for human settlement, then we have to further examine how higher levels of quality of life can be achieved - Understanding the “environment” as the space for life - Liveability is not given and also not inherent to the environment - Rather it depends on the interaction between an individual’s experience and the environment Liveable Cities - There are a
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