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Lecture Notes 1-3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Shaun Tanaka

Lecture 1 12/13/2013 8:11:00 AM -Our own, personal, sense of place is mediated by social norms and conceptions of that place. -Place/sense of place is simultaneously individually personal as well as socially meditated. -Social mediation is a reflection of power relationships > in terms of normativity is usually placed WE see the social of everyday places >individuals constantly enforces those practices with there everyday practices >Gender as a social category and unstable Gender is fluid/ changing Ontology and Epistemology >Ontology, simply put is the study of what is or the study of the nature of being, existence, or reality. >Ontology, simply put is the study of what is or the study of the nature of being, existence, or reality. >we learn about social geography as a theorical and methidolgical >each scholar approaches with there own ideas, & geographers have become more explicit Social Theory and Practice Environmental Determinism A philosophy positing that social development is determined by the environmental conditions in which societies develop. This philosophical position generally fell out of favour in geography in the early twentieth century Social Theory A philosophical position arguing that research must be based on empirical observations, which can be tested, repeated, and developed into scientific laws. Its doesn‟t consider the sense of place Structuralism Causality operates at the structural level -theories must be validated by internal logic and consistency structuralist inquiry places less emphasis on observation and measurement compared with positivism. Humanism seek to provide understanding and interpretation of human agency, consciousness, and creativity theories are evaluated on the basis of shared understanding, interpretation, and consensus Marxism Often with Marxist, you talk about capitalist and labor Feminism Is both a theoretical position – informing a critique of patriarchy – and a political position – focusing on the politics of equity and equality of women. 70s first seen as a corrective to the disciplines masculinist narratives. First wave feminists sought to increase the visibility of women in the discipline, others now theorize the relationship between gender, difference, and inequality from a variety of perspectives. Postcolonialism Entered geography in the 80s and 90s Based in a specific critique of colonialism and neocolonialism, postcolonial theory is diverse and encompasses approaches that refocus intellectual narratives away from the “center” Postmodernism Refers to a variegated set of philosophical approaches. 80s, as a challenge to structuralism as well as the other philosophies positing that deep structures, such as capitalism or patriarchy, determine social and spatial relations. Poststructuralism Developed out of a critique of structuralism, suggesting that linguistic practices, discourses, and texts have no essential characteristic but are constructed temporarily through the deployment of power. In geography, poststructuralist theory informs the study of representations and representational politics as well as the politics of identity and subjectivity. Power relationships >You can use the quotes to back up critical. The process by which theorists translate their ontologies and epistemologies >How insider outside research and positions are very fluid, and constantly changing. Objectivity- Its trying to be objective of that your writing Critical Reflexivity Process of constant, self conscious, scrutiny of the self as researcher and of the research process. >your gender, you race, will determine how they go about answering your questions. +article, you social location does effect how the people respond. >insider, outsider researcher (insider: you share the same things Outsider: you have a more knowledgeable background, etc) You cant trick people to participating for you Social Geographic Methodologies Lecture 2 12/13/2013 8:11:00 AM With social geography, we are writing about the world -Maps are not black or white, its important to human geography. Earliest forms of communication took the forms of maps >When mapping you need to consider social quality, e.x income of families >What we know about the world come through maps >Maps vary from person to person depending on their background Who is controlling the maps? Boundaries are contested through time & space Maps help naturalize and communicate a dominant idea of who belongs within particular boundaries and who does not The powerful write maps, with there own agenda Discipline of geography has been central to projects of nation building, colonization, imperialism, fascism What is social Geography? “Social geography is concerned with the ways in which social relations, social identities and social inequalities are produced, their spatial variation, and the role of space in constructing them” (Pain et. Al. 2001) Social attributes we may view about a certain space Social geography can rarely be separated from human geography What are some of the everyday things you can study about social geography? Your relationship, identity is also coherent to social geography The social can be consepted as a set of categories like descriptive adjectives: race, ace, sex etc.. Social geography focus’s on the analysis of the society, and the social relations of the various individuals they develop The idea of diaspora society, not fixed or beautiful in a particular place. When the term social is used with geography, the term becomes more complex. Space & Place: The power & social attributes we give to a specific place or thing. If something is of our own creation it can lead to change; its not fixed quality‟s we are born with and faded with our whole lives. These might change based on out social surroundings, country city we live etc… Struggles that make up CULTURE in SPACE –How are social meanings and power, social and economic advantage maintained and produced in space? We are look at the importance of identity and social location; age, body (disabled or able), it‟s a commitment to social justice. Social Geographers are special organized & experienced , and are there to find imbedded quality in our everyday lives. Why you identify a certain way? Its concerned with the inequity of our lives, how things come to be is ALWAYS and evolution of our time. 4 Key commitments to social geography Importance of issues of identity and social location Understanding the materiality of lived geographies vis- - vis social location A commitment to social justice and confronting power imbalances An engagement with “the relational (inter)subjective nature of ethics and justice” EX: Bush declared a thing called “owner ship society”. This divorced individuals from community‟s and governments. Despite his declaration, social geography remains a very important frame work for our identity and neighborhoods social network. What is space? >Absolute space: forms the basis of map-making and spatial analysis >MANY PEOPLE SAY, SPACE IS ENTIRELY ABSTRACT. Although abstract it can varis scales & property >Space is much more organic, it can vary on geographic scale. > As spaces are used and made meaningful by human beings, they become places. > Geographic entities with distinct shapes, scales, and other properties that set the stage for certain kinds of human activities. -The space does not have to be use for its intended use, so how this place has been used ex, street used to play hockey; this gives meaning to that space which is normally just used as a road. It can change based on the community‟s subscribe to. What is place? Place refers to a location with a specific identity A sense of place is evoked in relation to a distinctive place with special significance Its not just location, it can also be sights, history of places, specific sites, etc… Shaped by human beings and shape the lives of human beings. The things that we do in these places, give them there meaning. Power of place The functionality was intended for something, but that does not mean it is being used for that reason. Culture, power, nature, resources, etc. affect the ways that places become what they are What has been evolved to change that place, or the human effort ex: Hurricane Katrina Place as the site of identity, community, security, etc… >It could be saying “I‟m from the south” and this tells people about our identity. It can be a short hand for social class Some places in community can be very small ex: private clubs A third place is essentially a place that exist which is between work & home. Its dosent have the sense of security as home or the labor aspects of work. Its place that you go to in between; the pub, Starbucks. There is a physiological sense of security or home with these privatized space. Ex: gated suburbs Social Construction of place identities -Our own,
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