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Lecture 9

GGRB13 - Lecture 9 - Guest Lecture

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Minelle Mahtani

GGRB13 – Lecture 9 – March 19, 2012 GUEST LECTURE: Tamir Arviv Social Geography’s Engagement with Globalization, Transnationalism, and Sense of Place Globalization - A charged and contested concept, or a “buzzword” - It is a process - Technology allowing people to be connected quicker, and the mixing of cultures and traditions - Includes all aspects of life What kind of social processes constitute the essence of globalization? - What is considered the centre or this process? - Economics, politics, culture, environment, religion, ideology? Time-Space compression - Globalization compresses the time and space aspects of social relations - Technological advances such as transportation, internet, etc. has increased the speed of flows of information, and the world has increasingly become a “global village” Upscaling – the emergence of super-national and transnational organizations Ex. European Union - The nation state loses to these trends Downscaling Global Cities - They influence the world Ex. If NYSE falls, then the whole world collapses as well - The ability to host sporting events, such as Olympics - Cities compete to host sporting events because it puts them on the map - Advanced infrastructures - Advanced communications (good for business) - Interconnectedness with other cities - NYC, London, Paris, and Tokyo on top in almost all categories and rankings Ex. Research and development, cultural interaction, livability, accessibility, economy, etc. th - Toronto is ranked 25 (good for Research and Development) The Dark Side - Social polarization in Global Cities - Decline of employment - High pay in management-type jobs, but very low pay in unskilled jobs, basically there are many high-end and low-end jobs, but decline in manufacturing jobs - Uneven urban development Ex. Urban growth in 5 areas of Canada - Other areas suffering from urban decay - Immigrants preferring to settle in urban areas in search of jobs - Governments try to attract investors into the cities, they put more funding into the main cities - Detroit used to be the centre for automobile industry, today it is decaying Transnationality - Connected to globalization - Refers to migrant relations that is emerging “Trans migrants communities” - Communities who develop and maintain economic, social, organizational, religious, and political relations across national borders - When we talk about borders, it is usually between their country of origin and their country of settlement - When people move to other places, they never stop revisiting their homelands, calling their family back home, etc. - Assimilation vs. transnational connections - Immigrants who settle in a new country have difficulty in assimilation, but the second and third generation may assimilate completely - People can live in another country and not assimilate, have a deep connection with home country - Transnational processes from above – are all the transnational activities initiated by organizations from above, such as the government - Transnational processes from below – are all the transnational activities initiated by those from below, such as the migrants Types of Transnational Activities - Economic - Migrants may contribute economically, find employment - Political - Migrants may be involved with electoral processes - Social-cultural Ex. Watching a television show, maintaining national holidays, etc. Flexible/Global Citizenship - What does it mean to be a citizen today? - You live in a nation state, you vote, you are given rights to be a citizen - Flexible refers to countries that give citizens the right to have more than one citizenship - Migrants may use dual citizenships to gain resources from other countries - Based on the idea that globalization has made people choose their citizenship based on certain preferences, such as economic, political, etc. - Global citizenship, a notion that is emerging - The nation not used as identification Ex. “Canadian” - Some people may identify themselves as a religion, such as “Jewish” The Role of the Nation-state - Some countries have borders, so it controls who goes in and out (national or state borders) - National loyalty - Reach-out projects - Dual-citizenship - Some countries do not allow it - Immigration policies - Usually working-class/unskilled immigrants have a hard time getting in because Canada wants skilled employees - Some nation states want skilled immigrants - Women? Usually males are wanted while females are discriminated - Same sex partners? Trans migrants’ ethno-cultural identities - Essential - Fixed - Spatially bounded - Culturally homogenous - Their identities are fluid and dynamic, always changing - Situational - Reactive - Socially constructed Belonging and a Sense of Place in the Era of Globalization and Transnationality? - How global economic and cultural flows affect the manner in which people experience a sense of belonging to place? - Ideas of place have changed since the 1990s - Can a person see herself/himself as belonging to a certain place in a world where global webs of telecommunication challenge the existence of spatial borders? - Do global flows of millions of migrants from place to place challenge the old, supposedly homogeneous, identities of places? THE READINGS Doreen Massey – The power geometry of time-space compression - What is it? Power geometry is the social differentiation - There are differences in the degree of movement and communication, and also in the degree of control and of initiation - Some have more control than others, they are “in charge”,
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