GGRB13 – Lecture 9 – March 19, 2012
GUEST LECTURE: Tamir Arviv
Social Geography’s Engagement with Globalization, Transnationalism, and Sense of Place
- A charged and contested concept, or a “buzzword”
- It is a process
- Technology allowing people to be connected quicker, and the mixing of cultures and traditions
- Includes all aspects of life
What kind of social processes constitute the essence of globalization?
- What is considered the centre or this process?
- Economics, politics, culture, environment, religion, ideology?
- Globalization compresses the time and space aspects of social relations
- Technological advances such as transportation, internet, etc. has increased the speed of flows of
information, and the world has increasingly become a “global village”
Upscaling – the emergence of super-national and transnational organizations
Ex. European Union
- The nation state loses to these trends
- They influence the world
Ex. If NYSE falls, then the whole world collapses as well
- The ability to host sporting events, such as Olympics
- Cities compete to host sporting events because it puts them on the map
- Advanced infrastructures
- Advanced communications (good for business)
- Interconnectedness with other cities
- NYC, London, Paris, and Tokyo on top in almost all categories and rankings
Ex. Research and development, cultural interaction, livability, accessibility, economy, etc.
- Toronto is ranked 25 (good for Research and Development) The Dark Side
- Social polarization in Global Cities
- Decline of employment
- High pay in management-type jobs, but very low pay in unskilled jobs, basically there are
many high-end and low-end jobs, but decline in manufacturing jobs
- Uneven urban development
Ex. Urban growth in 5 areas of Canada
- Other areas suffering from urban decay
- Immigrants preferring to settle in urban areas in search of jobs
- Governments try to attract investors into the cities, they put more funding into the main
- Detroit used to be the centre for automobile industry, today it is decaying
- Connected to globalization
- Refers to migrant relations that is emerging
“Trans migrants communities”
- Communities who develop and maintain economic, social, organizational, religious, and
political relations across national borders
- When we talk about borders, it is usually between their country of origin and their
country of settlement
- When people move to other places, they never stop revisiting their homelands, calling their
family back home, etc.
- Assimilation vs. transnational connections
- Immigrants who settle in a new country have difficulty in assimilation, but the second
and third generation may assimilate completely
- People can live in another country and not assimilate, have a deep connection with home
- Transnational processes from above – are all the transnational activities initiated by
organizations from above, such as the government
- Transnational processes from below – are all the transnational activities initiated by those
from below, such as the migrants Types of Transnational Activities
- Migrants may contribute economically, find employment
- Migrants may be involved with electoral processes
Ex. Watching a television show, maintaining national holidays, etc.
- What does it mean to be a citizen today?
- You live in a nation state, you vote, you are given rights to be a citizen
- Flexible refers to countries that give citizens the right to have more than one citizenship
- Migrants may use dual citizenships to gain resources from other countries
- Based on the idea that globalization has made people choose their citizenship based on
certain preferences, such as economic, political, etc.
- Global citizenship, a notion that is emerging
- The nation not used as identification
- Some people may identify themselves as a religion, such as “Jewish”
The Role of the Nation-state
- Some countries have borders, so it controls who goes in and out (national or state borders)
- National loyalty
- Reach-out projects
- Some countries do not allow it
- Immigration policies
- Usually working-class/unskilled immigrants have a hard time getting in because Canada
wants skilled employees
- Some nation states want skilled immigrants
- Women? Usually males are wanted while females are discriminated
- Same sex partners?
Trans migrants’ ethno-cultural identities
- Spatially bounded
- Culturally homogenous
- Their identities are fluid and dynamic, always changing
- Situational - Reactive
- Socially constructed
Belonging and a Sense of Place in the Era of Globalization and Transnationality?
- How global economic and cultural flows affect the manner in which people experience a sense
of belonging to place?
- Ideas of place have changed since the 1990s
- Can a person see herself/himself as belonging to a certain place in a world where global webs
of telecommunication challenge the existence of spatial borders?
- Do global flows of millions of migrants from place to place challenge the old, supposedly
homogeneous, identities of places?
Doreen Massey – The power geometry of time-space compression
- What is it? Power geometry is the social differentiation
- There are differences in the degree of movement and communication, and also in the degree of
control and of initiation
- Some have more control than others, they are “in charge”,