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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 Reading.doc

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Michelle Majeed

Lecture 5 ReadingCohenpatterns in infectious diseaseIn 1931 Henry Sigerist wrote Most of the infectious diseaseshave now yielded up their secrets Many illnesseshad been completely exterminated others had been brought largely under control Between 1940 and 1960 the development and successes of antibiotics and immunizations added to this optimism and in 1969 Surgeon General William H Stewart told the United States Congress that it was time to close the book on infectious diseasesincreasing emphasis was directed at the noninfectious diseases such as cancer and heart disease Often research on infectious disease or activities on their prevention and control were deemphasized and resources were reduced or eliminated pharmaceutical companies believing that there were already enough antibiotics began reducing the development of new drugs or redirecting it away from antibioticsoptimism was soon shaken by a series of outbreaks and epidemics of new reemerging and antimicrobial resistant infections Legionnaires disease Ebola virus HIV flesheating bacteria and mad cow disease bovine spongiform encephalopathydiseases occurring both in the developing and developed worlds indicated that much was still unknown about infectious diseases At the beginning of the twenty first century infectious diseases were once again capturing the attention of public health workers academicsgovernment and the general publicInfectious diseases in the twentieth centurybeginning of twentieth century infectious disease was the leading cause of the deathUSA main 3 were TB pneumonia and diarrhoeal diseasefrom 1700 to 1900 all the infectious disease transmission were down and life expectancies were going up because they had goo nutrients and the increase in further bringing down the mortality rate was because of the antimicrobial agentssmallpox was eradicated in 1977By the end of the twentieth century in most of the developed world mortality from infectiousdiseases had been replaced by mortality from chronicillnesses such as heart disease cancer and stroke The developing world didnt have the same success with infectious diseases they remained the major cause of morbidity and mortalityThe societal and technological advances that hadinfluenced infectious diseases in the developed world had less of an effect in the developing world At the end of the twentieth century there were worrying trends in both the developed and the developing worlds New infectiousdiseases and microorganisms were being recognized Legionnaires disease toxic shock syndrome Lyme disease HIV Nipah virushantavirusEscherichia coli O157H7 flesheating bacteria and many others Infectious diseases were also being recognized as the cause of chronic illnesses Helicobacter pylori for instance is now known to be the cause of peptic ulcers New infectious agents such as Ebola or Marburg virus had the potential for rapid international spread Diseases such as cholera tuberculosis dengue fever yellow fever and malaria which had once been controlled in many parts of the world were reemerging Resistance to antimicrobial agents was becoming a serious global problem
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