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Lecture 5

Week 5 Lecture Note

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Midterm exam next week (see midterm study guide on Blackboard) Sample question #3: o Go back to population measurements fertility rate, GDP, or life expectancy o Then briefly discuss how fertility rates, for example, relate to population growth Essay due date is postponed one week later March 9 (see essay study guide on Blackboard) In-class assignment will also be one week later March 23 Session 4: Why do Scotsmen and Botswanians die young? Of mortality and epidemics Demographic transition Mortality transition refers to longer life expectancy, lower infant mortality rates, and lower population growth that occurs over time th In the more developed countries, this mortality transition took place in the 19 and early 20 century and started in the less developed countries around WWII and after However, in developed countries, mortality transition was more quicker than nowadays because of the availability of modern medicines, health care, and improved nutrition and sanitation Variations of mortality rates can occur over time, this is called the mortality transition How did this take place over time? o First, when people were still hunters and gatherers, infant mortality rates were quite high, especially for children under the age of 5 o But if they made it over the age of 5, then they had a healthy life until they were in their 20s and 30s o So we have to keep in mind that until hundreds of years later, life expectancy of 30 or 40 years was quite a long ride After advanced agricultural techniques in place, human settlement occurred, however this brought human diseases due to denser population and poorer sanitation in these settlements, and illness and diseases travelled through space through trades The industrial revolution was brought by the businessmen and economic elites, however was put out because they feared the economic development of their industries in their cities were in danger if they worked in factories and become ill So public health initiatives in late 18 and early 19 century helped to improve the social and economic living conditions However, there were still infectious diseases these were leading causes of death in early 19 century
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