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Week 9 Lecture Note

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Session 7 + 8: Migration Typologies of migration: space, time, space-time, cause International migration • One example for migration through space Age strata • If we want to classify different migration types through time, then we might want to think about the life course periods • Differentiation of migration types in different age strata • This means that at different times in life, you might want to think about different types of migration Nomadism • Certain groups of people in certain countries still are not settled down and move throughout the year to different locations in time • Move to different locations in different seasons throughout the year Zelinsky’s mobility transition • In different times the development countries/regions, we experience different types of migration • Differentiated five different phases: pre-modern traditional society, early transitional society, late transitional society, advanced society, and super-advanced society • Looked at emigration, rural urban migration, urban urban migration, and circular migration o Rural urban migration = from countryside to city o Urban urban migration = from city to city o Circular migration = refers to seasonal workers or migration types that are quite common nowadays which are called commuting (is sometimes counted as migration and sometimes not) • Remittance = money sent back to families; plays an important role in international migration Transhumance • Seasonal movement – have different types of trees, which signify the livestock moves during different seasons of a year • At the bottom is the sea level and at the top is the mountain • Farmers move from mountainous regions in spring to the next higher level of mountains with all their livestock, kettle, goats, sheep, and have summer settlement in the higher parts of the mountain where they have their kettles raised and come back to their farm/home in winter time • You have more space and fresh grass that is available to feed more kettle than when you stay at bottom of the valley • In mountainous regions, we have different vegetations, is more nutritious than bottom of the valley – this is why farmers want to drive their kettles up to stay there for the summer • Causes: economic, political, emotional, social • For people who migrate to developed countries – economic migration is the most used reason to migrate • If we talk about political migration, then we talk about refugees – people who are forced out of their country because they can’t do anything about it in the sense for example they raised democratic notions in the country that don’t support the democracy o This applies to dictators who are forced out of their country • Emotional and social reasons – heavy reunifications, either with their partners, children, or parents Laws of Migration (Ravenstein 1895) • Most migrants only proceed a short distance, and toward centers of absorption o Center of absorption = location in city where there are lots of jobs to offer • As migrants move toward absorption centers, they leave “gaps” that are filled up by migrants from more remote districts, creating migration flows that reach to “the most remote corner of the kingdom” o People move from place A to place B leaves a gap that is filled by people from place C o Some jobs are filled by Natives and they move up economically to better jobs, so these jobs open to others to be filled, so now people with lower educational levels fill them o Gap filling of ethnic groups is still in place in US = dual labour market theory • Each main current of migration produces a [compensating] counter-current o When there are people who move from place A to B, there are also people who move from place B to A • Migrants proceeding long distances generally go by preference to one of the great centers of commerce or industry o For example, in Toronto, most immigrants coming to Canada are entering through one of the major cities – Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal (the major commerce and industries in Canada) o Toronto is called the immigration hub in Canada because most people arrive in Toronto • The natives of towns are less migratory than those of the rural parts of the country o Lots of people in countryside move to city o Although this law is not entirely true anymore, it still holds true for some countries nowadays • Another model of migration is called push/pull model invented by Everest Lee o There are some reasons that push people out of one region/country, and there are some reasons that pull people into different parts of the country/world o There might be some intervening variables or obstacles between these push and pull reasons...those can be: family ties, political turmoil, major intervening obstacle is immigration policies that regulate flows between countries Migrant Selectivity • We experience that not all people migrate in the same terms as other people • One of the migrant selectivity reasons are shown here – interprovincial migrants, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories • Migration is highly selected according to: o age – people in age group 20-35 are more likely t
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