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Lecture 2

GGRC33 Week 2 Lecture.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David J Roberts

GGRC33 Week 2: GTA Regional Growth and Planning Key Issues  Idea of planning for growth: What we’ll be looking at throughout the course o A lot of planning is designed to manage the growth and make that growth happen in a particular way o What is the appropriate policies and bylaws that work to make sure that growth happens in particular ways Transportation and Congestion  Streetcars, subways, cars expanded urban design and landscape  One of the important design principles that made Toronto today Carrying Capacity  Certain environment can only sustain a specific amount of population  Relates to environmental issues and what infrastructure to use to sustain urban growth Planning Region  In practice, differs from statue, in terms of boundaries (municipal)  When you talk about municipal law, municipal boundaries are meaningful  Planners have to consider different fixed political boundaries Regional top down or local control over local issues?  In pre 1970s, planning was based on top down organization o No consultation from the general public but by experts o Planners know best? (B/C they studied the ideal shape of cities)  After 1970s, this was contested. o Local bodies actually know issues better than regional bodies  Changing the shape of regional planning  Smarth Growth: local issues Balance between economy and quality of life, environment  Protection against water can conflict w/ the quality of jobs etc Who makes decisions?  Tensions how different portion of regions view what is appropriate for the city  Geographical imagination what downtown is vs the surrounding region Regional planning make sense? MAIN SPATIAL GROWTH OPTIONS  Concentrating people around where people work and play (smaller density of land use) ex, TOD  Spread people as much as possible (sprawl)  Star shapes (transportation that runs from one centre and moving out) ex, New York Transit  Ring, originally Chicago was developed, industry based How Toronto is Planned (Map)  Centered around Yonge St.  Original nodal plan for Toronto  Toronto First Plan, 1788 o Town square and people lived around it o Common lands  Livestocks and recreation, land use for grazing  Everyone can use the land o Harbour  How Toronto started  Growth 1793-1918 o Unplanned growth o Growth was chaotic. o Growth starts to be connected with railroad from transfer of goods and services o Decision of land use planning can affect long term planning  No groceries  1980s, Gooderham and Worts (Distillery) o Heavy industries, logging, etc…  1890-1950 o Streetcars o Allows further transportation for people o Originally it was a private agreement  Monopoly provided the success o Rail company furthered out their development so that urban development can happen around the rail system o Population density creation outside the core  Toronto Plan 1929 o Key planning to reduce congestion downtown o Traffic became a concern o What the city propose to do:  New roads and parkways o Moving monumental nodes outside the city  Bay Street 1920s o Congestion at that time  Toronto Core in 1931 o Grid being established more consistently o Concentration o Congestion  Suburban Growth 1901-1921 o As city of Toronto expanded, in a few years time, municipal boundary will also expand which allows them annex any land they want o If paying for infrastructure to go into the suburbs, payed by tax money,  Expanding the city downloads the tax payment to the downtown Toronto  People end up paying more for infrastructure o Tension of services of outside Toronto vs tax payers of inner city torontonians  The Beginnings of Metro o Metro Toronto plan was to figure out how to plan and coordinate different municipal areas o Toronto had a robust planning but outside areas may not (planning laws and constructions not as good as in the downtown Toronto area) o Why this is successful?  By 1940s, people were happy with the government  Patriotic spirit and the gov was seen to tackle big problems  Confidence in the government which didn’t make people question their planning strategies  People were content with the decision of the government Part 2 Metropolitan Toronto  Two Tier Government Structure o Not an amalgamation o Retain their own municipal government but has a higher body that decides on public works o Different kinds of responsibilities for different aspects  Main Core o If your going to build tra
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