lecture 4

26 views2 pages
Published on 2 Nov 2010
School
UTSC
Department
Geography
Course
GGRA02H3
Professor
- surplus value of labour
- forced migration
- sugar trade - spatial interaction (goods and materials), change in character in
places
Empires
- colonization, exploitation
Æ
capital for industrial system
- world
Æ
European States (1599-1950)
- industrialism
Britain -- industry + empire (Hobsbawm)
Æ
great wealth generated from this empire
- changing nature of places - polluted, congested
18th - 19th century
Æ
the age of capital, the first industrial revolution
Æ
exchange (market) economy
Æ
new labour markets
Æ
massive capital investment in factories
Æ
new sources of energy - steam power
Æ
global sourcing of raw materials and labour (inputs of energy)
Æ
new modes of transportation (steam ships, steam railways)
Æ
spread of industrialization and geographic change
- urbanization - new centres of commerce and industry
- money, economy, accumulation of great amounts of money
Social and environmental consequences of age of industrialism
- pollution (air, water, global warming)
- class system -- proletariat
- depletion of resources (deforestation, fossil fuels)
The second industrial revolution
- first half of 20th century
- mass production: Fordism (assembly line, special tasks) and Taylorism (carefully
calculate how long it took for a worker to perform a particular task -- minimize it)
Æ
maximizing output and efficiency of production
- internal combustion engine: the era of oil
- first multinational corporations
--- disruptions of WWI (imperialist countries - territoriality), Communism, the Great
Depression changed political economic order
--- WWII: seedbed of modern global capitalism
Advanced capitalism: the age of globalization
- second half of 20th century
Æ
21st
- Bretton Woods agreement (1945) - Western powers reorganized global financial
system, help poorer countries developing (IMF, World Bank) -- first organized global
order, government intervention
- American economic dominance
- Keynes -- government should intervene/regulate economies
- Cold War and the H-Bomb
Æ
fueled their industrial system through military
- competing ideologies
- global production chains
Æ
By the 1990s almost entire world had adopted fundamental elements of a
market economy (Sachs, p. 98)
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Document Summary

Urbanization - new centres of commerce and industry. Sugar trade - spatial interaction (goods and materials), change in character in places. Colonization, exploitation  capital for industrial system. Changing nature of places - polluted, congested.  the age of capital, the first industrial revolution.  new sources of energy - steam power.  global sourcing of raw materials and labour (inputs of energy)  new modes of transportation (steam ships, steam railways) Money, economy, accumulation of great amounts of money. Social and environmental consequences of age of industrialism. The second industrial revolution - first half of 20th century. Mass production: fordism (assembly line, special tasks) and taylorism (carefully calculate how long it took for a worker to perform a particular task -- minimize it) Internal combustion engine: the era of oil. -- disruptions of wwi (imperialist countries - territoriality), communism, the great. Advanced capitalism: the age of globalization - second half of 20th century .