Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Geography (700)
GGRA02H3 (100)
Lecture 8

lecture 8


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRA02H3
Professor
Michael Bunce
Lecture
8

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L08
- broad distribution of wealth, investment in infrastructure, improvements for all
-
sustainable development
Issues to consider
- development of gender equality
- women vs. men
- role of resource endowments and technology
- pathways to development
- core-periphery relations
- highly dependent on those with wealth/capital/technological innovations
- how well connected as a country to the core
Development Theories:
- modernization theory: Western, industrial development model
- conditions for development are not always present
- China and India do not have empires
- dependency theory: periphery (Third World, less developed countries, the South)
exploited by and dependent on the core
- LDC never going to develop up to the level of living to the more developed
- dependent on where the capital/economic power/resources are
- community-based, sustainable development
- think geographically about scale and place
- get communities involved in their own development
- rejects modernization and dependency
Uneven development
- problem with core-periphery concept, Third World and arbitrariness of North-South
divide: the idea of two distinct worlds, developed and less-developed, rich and poor
- First World: Capitalist countries
- Second World: Communist countries
- Third World: Non-aligned countries
Æ
extended to countries that were less developed
- North/South - North-South Institute formed to study uneven
development - southern hemisphere
- two distinct worlds, not recognizing that it is a much more complex pattern
- based on neo-colonial attitudes and Western meanings of development
- former countries will forevermore be dependent on the North/core
- outdated because of globalization
- patterns are shifting, blended instead of a clear distinction
- development (growth) occurs wherever investment yields highest returns
- capital is invested unevenly in time and space
- companies move when costs start to go up
- flexibility of the system on a global scale causes frequent shifts in locations of
economic activities
- US is declining as a major power of economic activity
Will globalization reduce inequities
?
- trickle down effect -- global corporate capitalism not global capitalism
- few organizations controlling the whole thing
- economic benefits goes up from the poor to the richer companies
- entrenched uneven development
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