lecture 9

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2 Nov 2010

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- fear of terrorism
new/stricter immigration controls
- secular model of migration: move and stay
- temporary model of migration
- new types of migration:
- astronaut (p. 1153): whole families move to countries such as Australia or
Canada for better security while the main breadwinner returns to country of origin
for work
- return (p. 1153): returning to country of origin
- retirement (p. ): move back to country for relaxation
- cultural: arrange to return to home soil after death
- flexible migration: growth of temporarily, cyclical and recurring migration
Cultural globalization
: global culture and local identities
What is culture?
- system of shared values and meaning
Cultural identity:
- language
- religion
- nationality and ethnicity
- gender
- place
- expressed at different spatial scales: local, regional, national, global
- dynamic but also exhibits continuity -- used to ground people
- symbolic of a sense of identity/place
How are cultural identities displayed in places and regions?
- cultural complexes
-- cultural regions: [history, tribal identity, infrastructure]
-- culture space and place: culture ecology [Toronto -- ecosystem]
-- how culture is expressed in landscape (buildings, structures, agriculture]
- language and religion indicates local and regional identities (e.g. Mennonites,
Quebec, Israel, Sudan) -- idea of religious regions
- ethnicity, race and gender
- ethnic neighbourhoods [gendered spaces]
How has globalization affected local cultures?
- hold onto cultural values on a global/local scale
- suppression and replacement of local, regional and national culture
- cultural identity moving from local to global -- more with brands than with
traditional/religious values [neighbourhood identities]
- internet contributes to separation peoples attachment to place
globalization of building structures
[CocaColanization, MacWorld]
- colonization expanding values and imposing them on others
global consumer culture
-- the role of TNCs and branding
-- destroying small times mainstream, own towns
replacing them
global village: media
-- television, internet
global religions
- local adaptations and modifications of global popular culture (Western culture)
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