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GGRA02H3 Lecture Notes - Cognitive Model

Course Code
Michael Bunce

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2 tutorial meetings! 1st session October 5th & sometime in November
Start on assignment! – instructions will be posted by the end of the week
Thinking Geographically about Globalization
Main Questions
-What is globalization? What processes does it involve?
-What is significant about understanding global processes?
-What is thinking geographically?
-What does a geographical perspective have to offer?
Spatial interaction - Movement back in forth of money, finance
-no single definition
-global economic integration, global capitalism: i.e. organization of elements of the global
economy into a single system. We will examine what is meant by global capitalism in the lecture
on Sept 27th.
-global economic and political interdependence and interconnectivity: i.e. elements of the system are
dependent on each other and involve high levels of interconnection on an increasingly global scale
-Global culture: Global community, global village-everyone can communicate with everyone
instantly like a village but on a global scale (technology),: idea of global community, common global
values, global village. Example, globalization of TV programs. The term ‘global village’ was coined by
Marshall McCluhan. In his book The Gutenberg Galaxy (1962) he argued that print culture would be
replaced by ‘electronic interdependence’with electronic media replacing visual culture with aural/oral
culture. This would bring humankind together in a “collective identity” analogous to a village community.
Think about the weaknesses in the notion of a global community
-In fact globalization does not involve the full integration of all regions and societies into a global system.
This is well-summarized in a chapter entitled “What Globalization is Not” in John Gray’s book, False Dawn;
The Delusions of Global Capitalism. I have posted a PDF of these pages under the ‘Readings’.
-Boundary-broadening and space shrinking – globalization broadens your boundaries, leads to
shrink the amount of space, nothing is very far away
Significance of global processes (globalization)
-It’s really happening and won’t go away
-affects us all
-generates big arguments about its impacts – anti globalization
Ideologies (ideals) and discourses (debate) of globalization
-Pro-globalization: good for the economy and therefore good for the people, increases trade and
integration into the global economy, encourages economic grown which will trickle down even to
poorer countries global free market, will create a wealthy economy for everyone – Capitalism
-Anti-globalization: increases disparities, environmental degradation, reduces national
-the poorer the state the less control there is, Benefits of any global economic grown will trickely
up to richer countries, financiers, global corporations
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