GGRA02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Transnationalism, Early Human Migrations, Family Reunion

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13 Apr 2012
GGRA01 Lecture Seven: Migration- The Mobile World Nov 14, 2011
When and why did people start moving around the world?
What have been the main patterns and factors of migration
How does migration relate to the geography of globalization?
1.Early Migrations- Features and factors in early human migrations
- Over long periods, small numbers
- Population growth
- The search for resources
- Technological superiority
- Territorial expansion, conquest, invasion and succession
2. Modern migration: factors in decision to migrate
Push-Pull model:
Push factors
Economic: poverty, unemployment
Social: population pressure, class and community conflict, lack of social mobility
Political: repression, discrimination, genocide, war.
Environmental: resource depletion, natural disasters, disease.
Pull factors:
Economic: jobs, income and prospects
Social: social mobility, modern lifestyle, networks, family survival strategy, remittances, family
Political: democracy, human rights, immigration programmers.
Environmental: land, better living conditions.
Aging, low population growth regions attract people from young, high growth regions.
3. Types of migration
Short-distance: mainly rural to urban.
Long distance: inter-regional and international
But also different contexts:
Voluntary people choosing to migrate
Forced: slavery, refugees
Temporary: “guest” or migrant workers Rachel Ginsburg‟s talk about migrant farm workers in
Ontario is a good example of this.
Migration in rise of industrial capitalism
Colonialism and diasporas
settler and plantation model, e.g. European settlers in the Americas which also involved the
African slave diaspora to provide labour for the plantation system. Diaspora refers to the
movement, migration, or scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland"
or "people dispersed by whatever cause to more than one location", or "people settled far from
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