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GGRA02H3 (122)
Lecture 2

Lecture 2 notes

2 Pages
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Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRA02H3
Professor
Michael Bunce

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Lecture 2:
Ancient beginnings----
The expansionist civilizations:
The Greek and Roman Empires
-long distance exploration
The ability to leave home and discover new lands
-innovation and trade
Visiting new lands led to new ideas and trading of technology and resources.
-war and conquest
Wars started to gain new land and resources. Roman empire grown to acquire more food
(grains).
-mapping
Problem with mapping was that some thought the world was flat and some thought it was
round. Ptolemy knew the earth was round and attempted to map the world.
-land clearance and irrigation
Expanding into new areas led to new relationship between man and the environment.
-first cities
Cities were used as cultural and trading centers.
Islamic empire
7
th
– 13
th
centuries
Early global economy based on trade across Asia, Africa and much of Europe.
-Expansion of Islam based on trade and spread of religion. Caused problems between
western Christian world and Islam.
The Rise of Global Capitalism
What is capitalism?
- Free market: less government interference, less tariffs and taxes
- Open competition: rational economic theory
- Private ownership of production: The whole discussion of capitalism over socialism is
based on this idea.
-Surplus value of land and labour: Companies exploit land and labour to make profits.
Low minimum wage is example of this. Tells a lot about relationships of humans in the
capitalist system.
-Profit: Publicly run companies aren’t interested in making profit, just operating costs.
Capitalist companies are focused on making profit.
Stages (ages) of Global capitalism:
1. Age of exploration- discovery, encounter and conquest: 15
th
– 19
th
centuries- first
colonies
2. Age of Empires: 18
th
– 20
th
centuries
3. Age of Industrialism: 19
th
– 20
th
centuries
4. Age of Globalism: 1950’s to present
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Description
Lecture 2: Ancient beginnings---- The expansionist civilizations: The Greek and Roman Empires -long distance exploration The ability to leave home and discover new lands -innovation and trade Visiting new lands led to new ideas and trading of technology and resources. -war and conquest Wars started to gain new land and resources. Roman empire grown to acquire more food (grains). -mapping Problem with mapping was that some thought the world was flat and some thought it was round. Ptolemy knew the earth was round and attempted to map the world. -land clearance and irrigation Expanding into new areas led to new relationship between man and the environment. -first cities Cities were used as cultural and trading centers. Islamic empire 7 13 centuries Early global economy based on trade across Asia, Africa and much of Europe. -Expansion of Islam based on trade and spread of religion. Caused problems between western Christian world and Islam.
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