The expansionist civilizations:
The Greek and Roman Empires
-long distance exploration
The ability to leave home and discover new lands
-innovation and trade
Visiting new lands led to new ideas and trading of technology and resources.
-war and conquest
Wars started to gain new land and resources. Roman empire grown to acquire more food
Problem with mapping was that some thought the world was flat and some thought it was
round. Ptolemy knew the earth was round and attempted to map the world.
-land clearance and irrigation
Expanding into new areas led to new relationship between man and the environment.
Cities were used as cultural and trading centers.
Early global economy based on trade across Asia, Africa and much of Europe.
-Expansion of Islam based on trade and spread of religion. Caused problems between
western Christian world and Islam.
The Rise of Global Capitalism
What is capitalism?
- Free market: less government interference, less tariffs and taxes
- Open competition: rational economic theory
- Private ownership of production: The whole discussion of capitalism over socialism is
based on this idea.
-Surplus value of land and labour: Companies exploit land and labour to make profits.
Low minimum wage is example of this. Tells a lot about relationships of humans in the
-Profit: Publicly run companies aren’t interested in making profit, just operating costs.
Capitalist companies are focused on making profit.
Stages (ages) of Global capitalism:
1. Age of exploration- discovery, encounter and conquest: 15
2. Age of Empires: 18
3. Age of Industrialism: 19
4. Age of Globalism: 1950’s to present