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lecture 3

Course Code
Susannah Bunce

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- global city: command centre of the global economy, place for people to migrate to
- cities are trying to attract investment/labour to become financially stronger
Patterns of Urbanization
- late 19th century: growing public concern about the social and environmental hazards of
industrial cities in Europe/North America:
* rapid industrialization of cities - ruralÆurban
* overcrowded housing - high demands not met
* disease - death rate fell below births, cholera
* pollution - incompatibility of locations (proximity of residence to factories)
- Manchester 'black city' - coal on walls of buildings
- along trade routes to New York City from ship to places with poor sanitation and high
* lack of separate land uses - no governmental sense/public concern
Urban Public Health Movement: 1850s Æ [new ways to address urban environments]
- political movement to improve welfare of city residents
- policies to improve sanitation
- municipal government investment in public infrastructure
- emergence of urban planning
- land use zoning: separation of land uses [urban planning]
- policies to improve sanitation (sewage systems), financial investment
- United Kingdom - start of government legislating housing
* 1909, first piece of urban planning legislation - forbade building back-to-back housing
* Housing Act 1919, ministry of health have the authority to approve designs of homes
Public Health Reform in cities
- Katrina - raised awareness on effects of poor building structure
- Great fire San Francisco - formed Red Cross
main urban solutions to problems of the 19th century North American/European city
1. redeveloping the central city: urban renewal
- neighbourhood clearances:
- redevelopment of poor, working class neighbourhoods: "slum clearances"
* public health concern - purify
- political awareness of the lack of park space in cities
- belief that more green spaces would cure the "ills of the industrial city"
-- modernism
- introduction to green space to public health solution - cure the ills of cities
Central Park, New York City (completed in 1857) 843 acres
- designed by Frederick Law Olmstead
- funded and managed by local government
- vanguard of park space & public health
- slum clearance - on poor working class new immigrant grounds -- displaced
- everyone can access, no matter the class
- delivery of publicly funded social housing (1940s onwards) for low income residents
e.g. Stuyvesant Town and Peter Cooper Village - Manhattan
Æ high density, multi-storey/unit apartment buildings
- "Tower in the Park" design vision: Le Corbusier (20th century architect)
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