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lecture 4

Course Code
Susannah Bunce

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Urbanism as Way of Life - Wirth (1938)
- city is a large, dense, and permanent settlement of heterogeneous individuals
- urban life is a social sphere - natural
Æ social sphere is naturally constituted
- physical density of a city creates social life
- complicated phenomena of urban life
-- criticized for applying biological consequences (ecology) to society
-- not taking into consideration political understandings
- separation between urban and city
- urban life can exist outside the physical perimeters of a city
* qualities of a city - not just physical attributes
Jane Jacobs: Organic City Neighbourhoods - Death and Life of Great American Cities
- first female scholar - local issues
- reaction against urban renewal in New York City
- quick escape from the central city to the suburbs (traditional city is being destroyed)
- argued against suburbanization
- protest against demolition of traditional neighbourhoods (central city locations)
* halting the Allen Expressway (South of 401 to Eglinton - supposed to go to CN Tower)
- supported small scale neighbourhood environments
- city neighbourhoods are organic -- grows naturally over time (workable/liveable places)
* importance of community life
- explore social structures of neighbourhood
- "Eyes on the Street" - social interaction and safety
- importance of street life
* suburbanization = isolationist nature, lack of communication/connection with neighbours
Urban Modernism: 1920s - 1970s
- progress
* getting rid of the industrial city (unhealthy environment) Æ clean structures, skyscraper,
separation of land uses, suburbanization
- growth/expansion
- technology - advances which made it possible
- rise of the metropolis and suburb
- urban century
Growth of the Metropolis - e.g. New York City
- Robert Moses - all of NYC's infrastructure development
* master planning [how to plan for entire city regions]
- infrastructure development
- vehicular infrastructure * freeway expansion - over public transportation [through
traditional neighbourhoods]
* not aesthetical -- "Cities are for traffic" - getting in and out
- neighbourhood clearances
- modern urban landscapes
* lack of consideration of others & public input in planning
* top-down planning [apartment buildings, expressways]
- the Big Dig to cover up/dismantling freeways (began in 1982)
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