lecture 8

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2 Nov 2010
L08 - Urban Built Form: Smart Growth and Compact Cities
Smart Growth
- 1990s: North American policy model for the establishment of growth management policies
and practices in urban regions
- began in United States but moved to Canada during growth in population
- establishment of urban growth boundaries: greenbelts
- development within existing urban boundaries - bringing people back to cities, away from
the low density lifestyle based on automobiles Æ sustainable
Nodal Development: growth focused around existing urban nodes/centres (concentration
of mixed use: transit, commerce, residences)
- emphasis of already established centres
- public concern about suburban expansion (encroachment on regional agricultural lands -
decrease in rural land -- sustainability and food supply)
Greenfield Development: new residential, commercial, and physical infrastructure
development on formerly agricultural or wilderness lands
- preserving greenfield development = only development was for farmland
- government and private sector concern about economic impacts of sprawled development,
economic limits to urban growth
- correlation between people's commuting pattern and economic production
- regulated uses of suburbanization but incompatible (rural - urban)
- marketing suburban residential development away from cities to live in countryside
- focusing on sustainability to healthier spaces (urban = healthy, away from automobiles)
Places to Grow Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe (Southern Ontario)
- 2000: initiated Smart Growth Plan for Southern Ontario
- inspired by smart growth plans in American cities
- concerned with impacts of traffic congestion of goods shipment
- unless it becomes legislation, it will not be fully implemented and enforced
- guides and manages urban growth in Southern Ontario for the next 30 years (beginning
key components:
- limit greenfield development
- focus on mixed residential and commercial development in existing urban centres (urban
intensification and nodal development)
- main street development: residential development along major avenues
Æ different living arrangements
- dedicated plan to preserving agricultural/wilderness land - highlands - preserving lands to
ensure accessible drinking water (environmental concerns)
* conformity and regulation
New Urbanism
- planning and design model based on smart growth concept
- model for new residential communities
- Ahwahnee Principles (1991), Congress for the New Urbanism (1993)
1. walkability 6. traditional neighbourhood structure (TOD)
2. connectivity (walking paths, transit)7. high density (living environment, popn)
3. diversity: tenure and income 8. green transportation (walking, bicycle, etc)
4. mixed land use 9. sustainability - energy efficiency
5. good architecture 10. quality of life
- new ways of living in cities, addressing suburbanization
- Planner and Architects: Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk
- Cornell development, Markham, Ontario - commercial space at street level + residential
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