Poor and ethnic communities located in less desirable areas (new immigrants, low income) Affluent citizens have influential power (choices to choose from) 1982 when north carolina selected rural township where 70% of residents were. at first was dumped illegally, then established site - 7ft above water table when supposed to be 50ft -- eventually closed after protests. Power, governments can site unwanted landfills without the input of citizens. * environmental justice - for people to be engaged in a clean physical immediate surroundings. Inequitable environmental burden placed on social groups such as "visible minorities", women, and low-income citizens. * emerged showing an association between poor environmental areas and groups that are marginalized. Argument that ethnicity and social class are factors where toxic sites (unwanted land use) are located in both cities and rural areas. * things/items that affect the living standard, contribute negatively to environmental quality, low land values -- not very nice places to live.