lecture 11

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2 Nov 2010
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- exam is cumulative but will be broader
- part A = long essay question (conceptually broad), bringing in concepts to make your
argument
L11 - Responses to Urban Environmental Problems
- role of activism and can be formal advocacy at the city scale
- to change behaviour and attitudes of citizens
- environmental politics is key
Practice of Urban Sustainability
e.g. City of Toronto case example of waste disposal
- in Canadian municipalities, waste disposal is funded and managed by local government
- all households have access to green box/blue box/waste disposal programs
- practice taken for granted (eat and throw)
- TARGET 70 campaign for solid waste diversion (from landfills through composting,
recycling, and general reduction)
* reduce packaging, reuse instead of purchasing/using disposable/nonrecycable items
- all garbage from Toronto is currently shipped to a landfill in Michigan (stop in 2010)
- high costs of transporting garbage across the border Æ contract stopped
- Toronto purchased Green Lane Landfill in Elgin County, Ontario in 2007
- $220 million - on Native territory
Æ political problem: transportation costs (from taxes), environmental injustice (of Natives
to sell land for incentives), place and space (geographical problem - the city of Toronto is
transporting their garbage outside the city and is expecting others to deal with it)
- connectivity/network issue - others have to address our 'waste'
- trained as members of society to take for granted the types of networks of waste disposal
we have
2007: city council votes to apply fees for garbage disposal
2008: household garbage fees applied on a volume basis
- fees are believed to be a way of decreasing per capita garbage volume (won't create as
much if they have to pay for it)
-- make use of small space, litter, scamming garbage/recycling, does not change behaviour
-- income affordability - created public discourse
- public concerns about garbage fees
2009 - City of Toronto Labour Dispute (on strike - too much dependence on labourers)
- "clean living environment" as the garbage is removed from our eyes
- public health concerns of garbage + children in parks (parks&rec on strike as well)
Urban Gardening
- way of supporting local food production - moving away on reliance of global food network
- nutritious and accessible food (for people on low incomes vs. carbohydrate/starch
concentrated foods in food banks)
- community-based activity (isolated in apartments but builds a sense of community)
- food for individual consumption/sharing or sale (community economic development)
- community markets (across neighbourhoods, subsidized by city of Toronto to sell)
- gained popularity since 1980s as a way of augmenting our reliance on the importation of
food
* a garden space to three or more households using that space
- collect fruits from edible fruit trees (as they just fall and decomposes) to sell in markets
- city of Detroit for instalments of Urban Gardens and Urban Farms (collective
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