Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Geography (700)
GGRA03H3 (100)
Lecture 12

lecture 12


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRA03H3
Professor
Susannah Bunce
Lecture
12

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L12 - Urban environmental citizenship and environmental transformation
Cities and urbanization
- over half of the global population lives in areas defined as urban
urban = characteristic to a place (removal of rural lands, diversity of employment,
high population density}
- over 80% of Canadians now live in urban areas (Census Metropolitan Areas, 100 000+)
- increase of urbanization across the globe
- impact of urbanization on natural environment and cities
* students feel that the top of the environment is depressing & it gives no hope for the
future/empowerment of what is being addressed
Official Citizenship
- nationality - identification with nation state
- allows membership in a political community (e.g. democracy)
- political participation depending on citizenship/status - right to vote
- rights of an individual within society
- official citizenship status (permanent resident)
Active Citizenship
- individual responsibilities and duties within society: relationship between the individual
with the commons (larger society)
- individuals work to benefit the commons
- individual and community identity
- civic engagement and action
Environmental Citizenship
- environmental citizens make a commitment to the 'common good' through responsibilities
and actions
- the balancing of environmental rights and responsibilities in search for environmental
justice (obligation to act in an environmentally just manner via helping others)
- brings awareness of individual actions on a common understanding of the 'public good'
- addresses a need for sensitivity to the impact of individual actions on the larger commons
- emphasis on changing environmental behaviours and attitudes on an individual basis in
relation to the larger public realm
Methods of Change:
1. changing environmental behaviours
a. fiscal incentives - government policies aimed at solving environmental problems in cities,
focussing on changing societal behaviours
- government rebates to encourage 'better' environmental behaviours
-
* City of Toronto Rebate for Water Efficient Toilets (municipal) to changing to efficient
models listed by the City of Toronto
- penalties for individual taxpayers in order to discourage certain activities
- federal government level/liberal government proposed "carbon tax"
* tax on diesel and gas and oil heating (where tax revenue will be directed to federal
environmental programs)
- creation and enforcement of infractions for environmentally irresponsible activities
* fines for activities that contravene government regulations (vehicle idling)
* road pricing to discourage vehicle use through road usage tolls/fines
- London, UK tolls/fines for central city driving during specific hours
- fees paid by vehicle owner every time enter a specific zone
- contributed to governmental revenue
b. public policy and land use planning (governmental strategies)
www.notesolution.com
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