Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Geography (700)
GGRA03H3 (100)
Lecture 12

lecture 12

Course Code
Susannah Bunce

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
L12 - Urban environmental citizenship and environmental transformation
Cities and urbanization
- over half of the global population lives in areas defined as urban
urban = characteristic to a place (removal of rural lands, diversity of employment,
high population density}
- over 80% of Canadians now live in urban areas (Census Metropolitan Areas, 100 000+)
- increase of urbanization across the globe
- impact of urbanization on natural environment and cities
* students feel that the top of the environment is depressing & it gives no hope for the
future/empowerment of what is being addressed
Official Citizenship
- nationality - identification with nation state
- allows membership in a political community (e.g. democracy)
- political participation depending on citizenship/status - right to vote
- rights of an individual within society
- official citizenship status (permanent resident)
Active Citizenship
- individual responsibilities and duties within society: relationship between the individual
with the commons (larger society)
- individuals work to benefit the commons
- individual and community identity
- civic engagement and action
Environmental Citizenship
- environmental citizens make a commitment to the 'common good' through responsibilities
and actions
- the balancing of environmental rights and responsibilities in search for environmental
justice (obligation to act in an environmentally just manner via helping others)
- brings awareness of individual actions on a common understanding of the 'public good'
- addresses a need for sensitivity to the impact of individual actions on the larger commons
- emphasis on changing environmental behaviours and attitudes on an individual basis in
relation to the larger public realm
Methods of Change:
1. changing environmental behaviours
a. fiscal incentives - government policies aimed at solving environmental problems in cities,
focussing on changing societal behaviours
- government rebates to encourage 'better' environmental behaviours
* City of Toronto Rebate for Water Efficient Toilets (municipal) to changing to efficient
models listed by the City of Toronto
- penalties for individual taxpayers in order to discourage certain activities
- federal government level/liberal government proposed "carbon tax"
* tax on diesel and gas and oil heating (where tax revenue will be directed to federal
environmental programs)
- creation and enforcement of infractions for environmentally irresponsible activities
* fines for activities that contravene government regulations (vehicle idling)
* road pricing to discourage vehicle use through road usage tolls/fines
- London, UK tolls/fines for central city driving during specific hours
- fees paid by vehicle owner every time enter a specific zone
- contributed to governmental revenue
b. public policy and land use planning (governmental strategies)
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version