Class Notes (1,100,000)
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Geography (700)
GGRA03H3 (100)

Patterns of Urbanization

Course Code
Susannah Bunce

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GGRA03: Citites and Environments:
(Part I: Patterns of Urbanization, Part II: Contemporary Urban Ecology)
Patterns of Urbanization
Modern cities ideal: concrete built form conflicts with ideals of nature
Nature often considered as being ‘outside’ of cities
19th century: growing public concern about the environmental hazards of
industrial cities in Europe and North America
rapid industrialization (overuse of natural resources)
overcrowded housing (during the 19th century, London had the largest
population in the world)
disease (cholera became global disease at this time, and other diseases
became rampant during this time)
pollution (streets and nearby bodies of water were polluted by excess
garbage and unused materials)
Urban Public Health Movement:
1850s onwards
Political movement toward improving the welfare of city residents
Series of reforms to improve sanitation in order to decrease disease and improve
quality of life in cities
Municipal (city) government investment in public infrastructure
Emergence of urban planning – land use zoning.
Development of factories towns – towns which had a large percentage of its
workers working in a particular company.
Main responses to problems of the 19th North American/European city:
Redeveloping the central city:
slum clearances”: redevelopment of poor, working class
There was an increase in political awareness of the lack of ‘natural’ space
in cities.
Belief that more green space would cure the “ills of the industrial city”.
Exodus from Central city: Suburbanization
Public opinion that dense cities are unhealthy both mentally and physically
Development of new residential settlements away from cities with green
‘Anti-city’ sentiments began to emerge
Cities considered ‘un-natural’, and homes for the poor.
oExample: Garden City
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