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Lecture 3

GGRA03H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Germ Theory Of Disease, Utopian Socialism, New Lanark


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRA03H3
Professor
Andre Sorensen
Lecture
3

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GGRA03
Lecture 3
The Industrial City
- “urbanization” in the 19th century which led to an “urban crisis”
- management of water, garbage, slum clearance, environment and housing
Industrial Revolution
Four Main Changes
- technology and productive capacity, new energy sources, increased wealth
- urbanization – rural to urban migration, larger city population
- increasing role of capitalism in structuring economic and social affairs
- expansion of global markets and competition
The transformation of Production
- series of events slowed down industrialization globally
oNapoleonic War, Depression, Revolution in Europe
- new tech/productive capacity = expansion of production (mid 1800s-1900)
- new energy sources (coal) allowed industrial growth
ooil came later
oeverything becomes cheaper as it is produced faster/efficiently
omarks the 1st phase of globalization
oeveryone could afford products – opened up factories = jobs
- vast increase in prod. of iron and steel, machine tools, esp. UK – doubled output
- increased wealth, expansion of economic activity, new products

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Transformative Technologies
- several technologies were transformative
oillustrates that globalization existed much earlier than we know
production increases
interconnections w/in trading systems
movement of bodies (from rural to urban)
- more efficient iron and steel smelting = reduced prices
- railways opened up vast new markets and resources
- shipping costs dropped, allowed global market access by most producers
- undersea telecommunications cable increased communications
Urbanization
- growth of industrial production transformed cities
- industries were labour intensive, paid little, required large workforces
oinvention of work unions weren’t present
- rural to urban migration
- cities were mercantile, now became industrial, grew much larger very quickly
- transformed conditions of life in cities; many were poor
- markets began to organize much more of everyday life
Emergence of Capitalism
- creation of modern market society
- extension of markets into ever larger spheres of human life

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- housing, food, water, all became subject to market price system instead of self-
provided, or provided by employer
- capitalism spread to the entire world at this period through colonization
- * consequences
ohousing supply
rapid population growth, couldn’t keep up & therefore prices up
6-10 families in 1 house
oHall (Reading) – “housing crisis”
Industrial workers needed to live close to the workplace
Many couldn’t afford the daily journey of travelling to and from work
Key Concept 1
- The industrial revolution transformed society, esp. cities
- Rapid development of tech/productive capacity, new energy sources, wealth
increased
- Urbanization – accelerating rural to urban migration, larger city populations
- Increasing role of capitalism in structuring economic and social affairs
- Incremental incorporation of wider and wider areas of life into traded sectors
- Expansion of global markets and competition
- Integration of rest of world into European-dominant economic system
oResources, markets, colonies, gold
Urban Crisis
- European pop. Doubled 1850-1880
- Poverty, insecurity –> no health care, employment insurance, social assistance,
or social housing, etc
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