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Lecture 3

Lecture 3.docx

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Andre Sorensen

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Lecture 3
- transformative aspects of the industrial revolution
- urban problems
- urban reform movements
- arguments for city planning
- municipal governance and infrastructure building
Industrial Revolution
- 4 main changes
o technology and productive capacity new energy sources increased wealth
o social change- rural to urban migration, much larger city population
o increasing role of capitalism in structuring economic and social affairs
o expansion of global markets and competition
urban problems
- Manchester , London
- Poverty- insecurity no health care employment insurance social assistance social
- Housing- desperate overcrowding in inner city sections of the city
- Water supply- older technologies such as wells were suddenly inadequate who
would pay for new systems
- Sewers- human waste disposal became a major issue
- Congestion- in central areas become severe
Social Changes
- rural to urban migration- eclipse of older systems of social order, support
- concentration of poverty in inner city slums- there had always been poor people,
but never packed together in such huge numbers
- growing fear and insurrection disease, disorder
- fear of decline of morals and belief that poor were just lazy, improvident
Crisis and Reform
- grim truth of big city life in the 19th century . the city of dreadful night
- filth, desperate overcrowding disease, poverty crime, misery
- urban crisis as crucible of multiple ideas about how build cities
- socialism, anarchism, altruism, and fear of working class resolution to prompt the
development of solutions to the urban crisis\
Towards the planned city ( Anthony Sutcliffe, 1981, towards the planned city:Germany
Britain the united states and grance, 1780 to 1914 pp.208)
- become a regulation and provision of water supplies and other services by
municipal government
Political problem
- to get action on any issue it is necessary to convince political leaders and the
o - that the issue is important
o that a solution is possible
o that costs will be less than benefits
- that was very difficult in 19th century
- local governments had little power or money
- the electorate was small , leaders were usually big property owners, municipal
finance was mostly property tax
- governments did not like to regulate private land development or raise taxes
Changing understanding of city environment
- a key change after mid 19th century was the emergence of a new idea that city
environments must be consciously planned and built
- realization that free markets by themselves don’t build adequate urban
environments evidence was all around
- persuasive analysis that clean water supply, sewerage public transit gas supply
better designed streets, regulation of housing and development etc. could deliver
solutions to urban crisis
Urban reforms movements
- key elements of urban reform programme:
- - municipal water supply and sewers
- land use planning
- building control ordinances
- social housing
- municipal enterprise to own and operate streetcars, gas works and electricity
companies gradually became the dominant model
- reformers of the progressive age from 1890 to 1930 tackled these problems and
created new solutions, including a wide range of municipal infrastructure
Responses to the 19th century urban crisis
- there were three main responses to what was widely acknowledged to be a serious
- the utopians
- the paternalists
- the civic reformers (good governance, town planning, architecture, hygiene and
sanitation movements housing reforms)
- each contributed ideas
Utopian socialist solutions
- utopian thinkers saw the urban crisis as a chance to change fundamental aspects
of social organization
- Robert owen ( 1771- 1858) was a Manchester cotton manufacturer who attempted
to create a social and built solution to the urban crisis
- He built a new mill town called New Lanark, where he provided housing
- A company store sold at less than normal rates, health and welfare provisions free
education for children.
The garden city
- one of the most influential ideas was Ebenezer Howard’s Garden city
- the industrial city would be gradually emptied out into new, purpose built towns
- all classes would live in each town, housing would be inexpensive, jobs nearby
the land owned by the town
- families and children would live near healthy nature
Howard’s Concept
- howard’s analysis of urban and rural problem is brilliantly presented in his three
magnet’s diagram
- the answer to the question” the people where will they go?”
- to town country or garden city where benefits of both urban and rural are
Garden cities
- towns were to be set in a municipally owned green belt
- limited dividend companies were to be sett up