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Lecture 3

GGRB05H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Walter Christaller, List Of Census Metropolitan Areas And Agglomerations In Canada, Central Place Theory

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Denisse Macaraig

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GGRB05 Lecture 3
May 30, 2011
Reading: Chapters 4, 5 and 6
- Toronto Community Foundation: Toronto’s Vital Signs (full report)
- Types of Urban Regions
- Key roles of cities
- Canada-US comparison
- Central Place theory
- The Mercantile Model
- Growth
2 Approaches to Urban Geography
1) Study of systems of cities
2) The study of city as a system
- Cities are not independent, therefore its more useful to examine “system of cities”
- Cities are not stagnant, it is continuously changing, so are the urban patterns
Global Urban Patterns
3 Factors change urban patterns
1) Urban growth
- Population increase
2) Urbanization
- Proportion of total population increasing in urban area
3) Urbanism
- The social properties and characteristics of living within an urban area
Causes of Urban growth
- Net in-migration
- Natural population growth
Urbanization is Contemporary
- The rapid urbanization we are witnessing over the past 125 years is unique
- Urbanization spread around the world during the 20th century

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- In 1950, Africa, Middle East, and Asia were mostly rural. Today they are rapidly urbanizing
- More Developed Regions (MDRs) urbanization has slowed
- Less Developed Regions (LDRs) urbanization is expected to continue for decades
Ex. Dubai, was once a desert, but has urbanized into an urban centre
Megacities and Metacities
Megacities = Population > 10 million (debateable)
19 Megacities today, predicted to be 27 by 2025
Metacities = conurbations of population > 20 million
Currently only Tokyo
Conurbation a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas
Global/World City
- Cities that command a disproportionate amount of economic activity within their respective
- They are centres for socio, economic, political, and cultural capital
- London Tokyo, New York City
Types of Urban Regions
- Places a focus on the major employment centre in a given region
- Functional relationship between city and region, “Central Place Theory
- Coined by Sir Patrick Geddes “Cities in Evolution
- Continuous built up area formed through the growth of adjacent cities/towns
- Also describes multi-nodal functional units
Urban field (Common term in US)
- An area encompassing the urban core and its country-side/hinterland
- Population of at least 300,000
- Used by Lewis Mumford “Culture of Cities” and Jean Gottmann
- Adjacent urbanized areas, with minimum population of 25 million
Ex. Quebec City-Windsor Corridor, US Megalopolises (Pacioneo Fig. 4.9)
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