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L07 4 stages of HIV/AIDS: 1. Primary [short flu-like illness, no symptoms, can infect
2. asymptomatic [avg 10 years, no symptoms, swollen glands, HIV in
3. symptomatic [mild symptoms, immune system deteriorates]
4. HIVÆAIDS [weak immune system, becomes more severe]
may lead to: bacterial infections: tuberculosis, strep pneumonia
viral: kaposi sarcoma, herpes, influenza
- sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, contaminated needles, congenital, breastfeeding
- pandemic, spread amongst the young (15-50) through sexual intercourse
-- kills most productive members of society
- linkages between rural to urban
- affects both sexes: women more illed (psychologically, economically, culturally)
- socially invisible (long incubation period)
- strong social stigma (drugs, prostitution, 'unclean')
- life-prolonging treatment will remain inaccessible for vast majority (in the developing)
- very long incubation period while still being infective
- more than 95% are in low/middle income countries
- 2000 under 15, 6000 from 15-24, 50% women
- majority in Sub-Saharan Africa, South & Southeast Asia with HIV/AIDS (& newly
- prevalence in Africa - southern Cape
AIDS in China
- ~700 000 people living with HIV (75 000 AIDS), 39 000 people died from AIDS in 2007
- low overall prevalence (0.1%) - high infection among specific sub-populations
- 1990s - infected through blood donation
AIDS in India
- 2.3 million living with HIV
- sex workers and truck drivers, highly related to orphanage
- 1987 first case of AIDS
Geographical Variation
- differences in health services and co-factors such as nutrition
- material circumstances (migration patterns, gender, state support)- in no condition to object
- state policy (abstinence, be faithful, condom)
- different religious contexts [Christians vs. Muslims - behavioural impact]
- circumcision [delicacy to get infected]
- different strains of HIV (HIV 1 is less virulent - HIV 2 in West Africa)
SAPs cuts in state spending reduce health services Æ rise in unemployment
- creates new forms of gendered dependencies
- can help foster women's dependency on men
co-factors: malnutrition, parasites, malaria
- vulnerabilities that affect the individual, household, communities & institutions
Feminization of epidemic
- 31.3 million (by 2008), half were women with 98% in developing countries
- in Sub-Saharan Africa women were 60% of HIV+ adults
- India, 2003, 95% of new infections in women were married & monogamous relationships
- women are at a greater risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV
- biologically 2x as likely
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