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lecture 2

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L02 - From colonialism to market triumphalism: relation between wealth and health
- employment, education, technology
- access to food security enhances well being
- access to drinkable safe water, sanitation, sewage
- better access to technology (vaccines, antiviral drugs)
- increase in GDP per capita
Samuel H Preston - Preston curve
- relationship between life expectancy & real income
- does not grow at the same rate/inclination
- Millennium Preston Curve
-- up to a certain point (around $5000 per capital GDP), increasing national income
contributes to improving health - increases slower afterwards
-- countries at similar levels of national income can have different life expectancies
- micro/macro factors and influences that cannot be controlled
- a 5% increase in income Æ 1% reduction in infant mortality
- correlation in public spending on health - more spent, higher reduction in mortality
- falling fertility: UK, Ireland - growing workforce: UK, Ireland, Asia
Æ women are more readily available to work
- Kenya tea pickers - people who are HIV- were able to work longer
- people retire later - save for retirement Æ more investment & wealth
- USA, wealthier (#7 in GDP) but not healthier (#42 in life expectancy)
Æ obesity in rich countries
- wealth & health, sickness & poverty
- children die when GDP falls
relative risks are higher for vulnerable children born:
low-education mothers, +68%
young/old mothers, +23%
in rural areas, +72%
if boys, +11%
- money buys health, and 1 degree of health is cheap
- money buys health directly (medicine) and indirection (education for prevention and
- underpins prosperity - individual, family, business
- health is linked to wealth across countries and generations
- social, cultural, educational, technological, or all
Relationship between wealth and health
- long run, sustained economic growth leads to improved health and nutritional status
- health expenditure does not correlate with consistently better life expectancy
- 1/6 of USD was spent on health in 2004 -- less well life expectancy at birth
- needs an understanding of the particular circumstances in which economic changes take
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