GGRB28H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Sub-Saharan Africa, Syphilis, Malnutrition

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10 Dec 2010
GGRB28 – Lecture 6
Milestones in AIDs
AID’s began in 1981
In 1983 HIV was recognized as the cause of AIDS
HIV (a virus) was incurable
Throughout the 1980’s were years of many people dying of AIDs with extreme fears in the
1960’s and 1970’s was the sexual revolution, but then AIDs came along in the 1980’s and
began to associate the disease with sex
in 1996 highly active treatment (triple therapy) was invented, and involved using 3 types of
drugs to control HIV—it allowed HIV to be slowed down
CD4 count refers to the strength of your immune system
When your CD4 drops from 1200 (normal) to below 300-200, you become labeled with
Risk of Catching HIV
Now all blood is screened for HIV
MSM – men who have sex with men (anal sex as there’s a lot of tearing, blood etc)
The listed intercourse does not take into account STDs, for example, syphilis involves open
sores and blood
Adults and children estimated to be living with HIV as of end 2004
Most of the infections are in Sub-Saharan Africa
HIV Prevalence in adults in Africa, 2005
Prevalence of HIV varies across the continent
Important Trends
Women are more infected than men – this is common in the cases where individuals
participate in heterosexual sex
Women are more susceptible to the disease
There’s more AIDs in urban areas than rural areas
AIDS distribution by age, South Africa 2010
The prevalence amongst children is fairly equal because of maternal transmission and
reduces with age because kids with HIV don’t last very long with the disease
After the age 14, the teenagers become sexually active
The Changing Patterns of AIDS in Africa
First known case of HIV in 1959 in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Did a study of malaria in 1959 and froze the blood samples
When AIDs came out, they defrosted the blood samples and tested them for HIV
Colonialism made a fertile environment (labor, urban, poverty)
Forced labor, huge amounts of movement/migration, poverty
Moved from Western Equatorial Africa, to East Africa, and to Southern Africa
The roots of HIV is a virus called SIV found in monkeys in Africa
We can suspect that HIV moved from monkeys to humans
Lower rates in West and North Africa
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