Class Notes (922,247)
CA (542,775)
UTSC (32,897)
Geography (721)
GGRB28H3 (121)
Lecture 2

Lecture 2 notes

5 Pages
91 Views

Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRB28H3
Professor
Mark Hunter

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Globalization’ is a very prominent word in today’s world. It has been used especially
since the 1980s to capture a series of economic, political, and social changes.
It is also widely used to discuss health. For instance ‘global health’ is a term that is very
common when talking about health issues that cross a number of boundaries. The Bill
and Melinda Gates foundation has a global health program. So does the US AID (which
is the program through which the US channels foreign Aid) and CIDA (Canadian
International Development Agency). There are organizations that take the name, such as
the global health council. It is difficult to believe that this way of looking at health is
actually quite new.
Globalization is a controversial term. It describes a more interconnected world. But
debates over whether newness is exaggerated.
Some ask, is the nation state redundant? Is there anything particularly unique about the
present period, for instance in comparison with the colonial period which connected
peoples in new ways or the expansion of Europe into the so-calledNew World”.
One obvious side to globalization is greater connections between people and places
A second is a turn towards the market (indeed, anti-globalization is very much a
movement opposed to the domination of market institutions such as Multinationals)
A third is rising social inequalities—a gap between the rich and the poor--are also often
associated with ‘globalization’.
The idea that globalization is pushing us into a new era of disease often gains salience
because of the way that the onset of new diseases are contrasted with decades of
‘progress’.
That science is overcoming disease has been with for much of the later part of 20th
century. This is, after all, a period of massive advancements in science. From the 1940s
to the 1960s, especially, a successful vaccine for polio and smallpox and the discovery of
antibiotics suggested that infections would be eradicated. The last case of smallpox was
in 1977 (first vaccine 1796 when milkmaids who had cowpox did not catch smallpox.
The US military now vaccinated in case of bioterrorism). To some extent, many of us
will all have grown up with the idea that health can be controlled by an individual – for
instance by not smoking, drinking, or driving without a seatbelt.
Vaccine invented in 1955. Nigeria, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan only countries where
it is present.
Iron lung to treat people with polio. To breath for them. Works on the nervous system
and can cause paralysis.
www.notesolution.com
In many ways the argument that infectious diseases have been overcome are convincing,
at least in the context of the West.
If we look at this graph in the Cohen reading that you have we can see that the three
causes of death in the US in 1900 were:
1. TB
2. Pneumonia
3. Diarrhoea
Average life expectancy was 47.
However, in 1997, the three biggest causes of death were:
1. Heart Disease
2. Cancer
3. Stroke
Cohen describes this as being due to two main trends.
First, decreases in host susceptibility, as a consequence of better nutrition; antibiotics;
better housing. Antobiotics – the most well known of which is penicillin discovered by
Fleiming in the 1920s. They were dubbed the ‘magic bullet because they could destroy
the bacteria without damaging the body.
Second, decreases in disease transmission due to: safer food and water, immunizations,
and improved hygiene and sanitation.
But, Cohen notes. Many of these benefits had not reached the ‘Third world’. Infectious
diseases caused over 13 million deaths in the ‘Third World’. Among the most common
causes of mortality were the three diseases that had been so common in the developed
world at the beginning of the 20th century. pneumonia (3.5 m); diarrhoeal diseases (2.2
m) and TB (1.5 million).
West Nile virus infects birds and humans and is passed on by mosquitoes. First appeared
in the West Nile region of Uganda in 1930s.
It causes flu like symptoms but these can lead to brain inflammation and is mostly found
on the East Coast of North America.
It appeared first in New York in 1999.
Ebola. Virus. Internal and external bleeding. Very high fatality rates. First discovered in
Zaire in 1976. (mainly around Zaire, although some infected there and carried it)
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Globalization is a very prominent word in todays world. It has been used especially since the 1980s to capture a series of economic, political, and social changes. It is also widely used to discuss health. For instance global health is a term that is very common when talking about health issues that cross a number of boundaries. The Bill and Melinda Gates foundation has a global health program. So does the US AID (which is the program through which the US channels foreign Aid) and CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency). There are organizations that take the name, such as the global health council. It is difficult to believe that this way of looking at health is actually quite new. Globalization is a controversial term. It describes a more interconnected world. But debates over whether newness is exaggerated. Some ask, is the nation state redundant? Is there anything particularly unique about the present period, for instance in comparison with the colonial period which connected peoples in new ways or the expansion of Europe into the so-called New World. One obvious side to globalization is greater connections between people and places A second is a turn towards the market (indeed, anti-globalization is very much a movement opposed to the domination of market institutions such as Multinationals) A third is rising social inequalitiesa gap between the rich and the poor--are also often associated with globalization. The idea that globalization is pushing us into a new era of disease often gains salience because of the way that the onset of new diseases are contrasted with decades of progress. That science is overcoming disease has been with for much of the later part of 20th century. This is, after all, a period of massive advancements in science. From the 1940s to the 1960s, especially, a successful vaccine for polio and smallpox and the discovery of antibiotics suggested that infections would be eradicated. The last case of smallpox was in 1977 (first vaccine 1796 when milkmaids who had cowpox did not catch smallpox. The US military now vaccinated in case of bioterrorism). To some extent, many of us will all have grown up with the idea that health can be controlled by an individual for instance by not smoking, drinking, or driving without a seatbelt. Vaccine invented in 1955. Nigeria, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan only countries where it is present. Iron lung to treat people with polio. To breath for them. Works on the nervous system and can cause paralysis. www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit